Citibank’s Transformation of Traditional Money Management Into E-Business

Citibank’s strategic intent is to convert its traditional money management business into an e-business framework. How does Citibank transform its traditional assets into digital assets? What issues, if any, do you envision that Citibank must overcome in order for the implementation to be successful? According to Porter two main ways for a company to compete … Continue reading “Citibank’s Transformation of Traditional Money Management Into E-Business”

Citibank’s strategic intent is to convert its traditional money management business into an e-business framework. How does Citibank transform its traditional assets into digital assets? What issues, if any, do you envision that Citibank must overcome in order for the implementation to be successful?

According to Porter two main ways for a company to compete are on cost advantage or on differentiation. Citibank chose not to compete on price, but instead chose to compete on differentiation.

Since many other companies have similar products and services, Citibank bases its differentiation on customer service. Traditionally, this involved “offering telephone hotlines, relationship managers who understood clients’ needs, product consultants who provided service expertise and most important, continuous investment in technology to support both the front-end and the back-end electronic banking systems”. In order for “successful” transformation of traditional assets into digital assets the company must maintain or enhance its differentiation. Since the company’s differentiation is based on customer service, that means that in the transformation from traditional to digital assets the company must continue to be highly responsive to the customers’ current and future needs, and must do so to a higher level than the competition.

One main way that Citibank achieved transition from traditional to digital was via alliances with such technological companies as Oracle, Commerce One Inc, SAP AG, Wisdom Technologies and Bolero.net. Earlier the company invested millions of dollars on its own in multiple areas of e-business, and failed. Technology is not Citibank’s area of expertise, and it found dealing with constantly changing technology to be an expensive struggle, which it ultimately lost. However, by 2000 Citibank had changed its strategy to one of garnering alliances and using its partners’ strengths to create the technological infrastructure that the company needed to access markets and meet its customers changing demands. Working through alliances reduced Citibank’s risks and costs, increased its effectiveness, and allowed it to remain flexible in meeting changing technological and customer demands.

Customer demands varies, both in the short term and long term. According to McCauley and Kahn, one of the most important obstacles for Citibank to overcome in migrating customers from traditional to digital service was meeting their deep seated concerns about security. While to some degree this hindered Citibank’s efforts in rolling out Web-based applications, Citi did actively implement “multi-layered security architecture… public and private access keys, single-use passwords and multiple authorization controls” in order to meet customer needs (2002, p. 9). In addition, with digital processing it looked to transform repeatable processes that could be “commoditized” into an efficient digital factory. Commoditizing repeatable processes improves efficiency, but also allows resources for additional regional focus — localization. So too, Citibank’s strong brand name is a resource that translates into increased trust as a “trusted provider” when competing with Deutche Bank and other competitors. In fact, most Fortune 500 companies assign value to Citibank’s specific offerings, and prefer it to other international payment providers. Citibank, then, offers multiple areas of value to customers.

The key question, however, is whether this value translates into a competitive advantage which translates into additional profits. Though Citibank met their customers’ needs in the area of information technology, how unique is what it offered? Cutting edge technological capabilities can soon become “hygiene factors”, which are considered to be required, rather than a competitive advantage. These then, do not qualify for differentiation or competitive advantage. While at one point Citibank may have offered cutting edge technological capabilities, the competitive advantages these afford can quickly be eroded. Customer service and transactional efficiency are important. However we need to ask what other areas of business require attention in order for Citibank’s ultimate success. If these are not met, the corporation will not meet its growth goals.

Wal-Mart – What Makes Them America’s Number One Company?

America, land of “free-enterprise” has millions of companies in its market. The metropolitan statistical area of Houston, Texas in fact has over 600,000 businesses, most employing from 2 to 10 employees. As companies grow in the number of people they employ, fewer and fewer companies surround them. Most companies never grow beyond the smallest group size for many reasons. Some companies grow to become the target of the competition or the “model” on which the smarter more savvy managers base their practices to achieve “best of class” status in their industry or market. Wal*Mart has certainly earned its position at the pinnacle of American business and global retail dominance.

Founded by a retailer named Sam Walton with his brother in 1962, Wal*Mart has become that company to watch and emulate in the twenty first century. Walton, a “Ben Franklin” franchisee between 1945 and 1962 collaborated with his brother Bud Walton to found the first Wal*Mart in 1962 in rural Arkansas. Their strategy was simple. They opened discount-merchandising stores in rural America where big business and big retailers typically ignored “fly over” territory. The strategy of mass buying power and passing on the savings to customers took flight as the company grew steadily into the seventies and eighties.

As Walton situated stores in small towns with populations between 5,000 and 25,000 he implemented his plan “To put good-sized stores into little one-horse towns which everybody else was ignoring.” He thought that if they offered, “Prices as good or better than stores in cities that were four hours away by car…people would shop at home.” David Glass, CEO, explained, “We are always pushing from the inside out. We never jump and then back fill.”

Walton successfully instilled a small town friendly caring atmosphere in America’s number one company by indoctrinating “associates” in the idea that Wal*Mart “Has its own way of doing things.” He habitually shopped the competitors like K-Mart and Target. He would count the number of vehicles in their parking lots and “measure their shelf space.”

Sam Walton believed the number one key to the company’s success lay in the way the company treated their “associates.” He felt that if he wanted his associates to care for the customers then the associates must know that the company was taking care of them. Do to his foresight in people management the company many associates became wealthy as the stock price continued to climb the value turned everyday individuals in to wealthy people. Walton discouraged such shows of wealth claiming that such behavior did not promote the company’s reason for existence, to take care of the customer.

Walton described his management style as “Management by walking around.” Walton said about managing people that, “You’ve got to give folks responsibility, you’ve got to trust them, and you’ve got to check up on them.” This philosophy required sharing information and the numbers. The target was to empower associates, maintain technological superiority, and build loyalty within associates, customers and suppliers.

Free flow of information to associates gave associates a true and actual sense of ownership of the organization and allowed them to exercise authority to continually improve their processes especially their main institutional profit driver, supply chain management and process improvement. One of their key tools to managing an element of their chain, inventory, is called “traiting.”

Traiting in the Wal*Mart sense is described by Bradley and Ghemawat in their article as “A process which indexed product movements in the store to over a thousand store and market traits. The local store manager, using inventory and sales data, chose which products to display based on customer preferences, and allocated shelf space for a product category according to the demand at his or her store. Pairing inventory to exact store market demand eliminated or at least mitigated the need for advertised sales or “fire sales” allowing the company to brand it as the customers’ preferred venue for “everyday-low-prices.” Walton and later Glass insisted on lower than market average expenditures for advertising complimented with a “satisfaction guaranteed” policy to instill customer-buying loyalty.

Cost containment caused customer loyalty. In store operations, Wal*Mart, in 1993 incurred rental space of an average of 30 basis points lower than competitors. Its new store erection costs were substantially lower than competitors K-Mart and Target. Wal*Mart dedicated 15% less inventory space than the industry average thus allowing for more dedicated square footage for sales inventory. Square footage sales ranked around $300 per foot compared to $209 and $147 for Target and K-Mart respectively. Stores tended to stay open more flexibly than competitors, which also contributed to higher per square footage sales numbers.

The company organized each store into 36 departments and a department manager as a store within a store ran each department. The company had outpaced K-Mart by installing uniform product codes (UPC) electronic scanning equipment in 1988. Labor expense for individually labeling inventory was eliminated by installing shelf tags instead. The company spent $700 million dollars to connect the stores with headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas via satellite. Collecting and sharing such sales and inventory information allowed managers to pinpoint slow moving inventory and manage the supply chain by reducing purchased avoiding pileups and deep discounting.

The company manages the distribution chain. They instituted “cross-docking” to reduce and minimize inventory sitting in a warehouse. When an in-bound truck arrives at the warehouse, an out-bound truck is parked right next to it or close and shipments are offloaded from the inbound truck and moved directly to the out-bound truck thereby eliminating the need to sit in inventory. This method of moving it out as it arrived contributed to Wal*Mart’s almost one percentage point of sales less cost than the competition for like costs.

Wal*Mart treated its distribution chain as a profit center as well by strategically locating a warehouse or distribution point geographically where it could serve 150 stores and each truck leaving the warehouse can serve or deliver on the same route to four neighboring stores. Distribution gave store managers various delivery options as well as nighttime deliveries.

Wal*Mart manages its vendor relationships in a well-known “no-nonsense” manner. Unlike other retailers especially department stores, Wal*Mart buyers are not greeted and seated in a buyers’ office. Sam would not have preferred that haughty presentation and image. They are simply placed in a bare room with table and chairs. The company was sued administratively in 1992 when manufacturers’ representatives initiated unsuccessfully proceedings with the Federal Trade Commission. The company has not permitted a single vendor to account for greater than 3% of purchases further enhancing the leverage it exercises over companies.

Wal*Mart is a pioneer in information sharing and partnering with vendors. In its relationship with companies like GE and Proctor and Gamble, they interlinked computers to show real-time sales and inventory product specific data so that such firms could manage their own supply chain delivery. “They expanded their electronic data interchange to include forecasting, planning, and shipping applications.”

In 1992, Fortune magazine listed Wal*Mart as “one of the 100 best companies to work for in America.” David Glass, CEO, claims “There are no superstars at Wal*Mart” which could embellish the team environment. He said, “We’re a company of ordinary people overachieving.” The largest company in the United States is non-union. Associates are trusted and treated like owners and information is shared and entrusted to them. Vendors comment on the loyalty and dedication of their associates.

Associates are encouraged and rewarded for bright ideas, which in many other companies would go, unrecognized or stolen by owners or managers whom would steal credit. Stealing such credit and voiding the proper party to the credit only works to beat down associates and instill a feeling of worthlessness. Wal*Mart does just the opposite. Everyone is rewarded for profitability through contributions to the associates profit sharing account. In 1993 Sam instituted his “Yes we can Sam” program for ideas and then a “Shrink incentive plan” to reduce theft and inventory loss. The program allowed Wal*Mart to remain at least 3 tenths of a percent lower than the industry average in slippage.

Sam and David were smart enough to realize that they could not be in hundreds of stores all the time if at all so they decided to properly compensate each of the store managers who can earn in excess of a hundred thousand dollars annually. The company offers incentive pay on top for reaching and exceeding profitability and forecasting targets. The company offered health benefits to employee who work more than 28 hours weekly and also gives productivity and profitability bonuses to such hourly workers.

Tight fisted management names Sam Walton’s successors, David Glass and company. He instituted weekly Friday morning meetings where they shout and yell about individual items sold but before the meeting is adjourned, issues are resolved. Glass promotes the idea that “There is no hierarchy at Wal*Mart and that everyone’s ideas count and that no accomplishment is too small.”

The company began diversifying its store mixes in the early eighties by acquisition of other chains and opening Sam’s Clubs. The idea included offering only a limited number of stock-keeping units (SKUs). They financed inventory through accounts payable and generated net income principally by charging “members” for the annual privilege of entering and shopping at the “Club.”

Inventory costs at Sam’s Clubs was further reduced since only 30% of inventory was ever shipped from a Wal*Mart warehouse. 70% was sent directly from vendor. Since inventory was turned so frequently during the year, Sam’s Clubs really never paid for inventory until it was sold or even after.

Now, Glass has been quoted as telling managers “That if they didn’t think internationally, they were working for the wrong company,” Discount Store News, (June 1994). Furthermore, Glass mentioned to Business Week in 1992 that “You can’t replace Sam Walton, but he has prepared the company to run well whether he’s here or not.”

Essentially, Wal*Mart was founded by a man who was smart enough to realize that since he could not be everywhere to serve customers that he need to create and maintain an atmosphere where the people who worked for him wanted to make money and serve customers. As he grew the company he and his management staff continually assessed the supply chain and thought of and enacted pioneering ways many times considered unorthodox that created better and better customer value and lowered the cost of giving the customer what he wanted which was the purpose of the company to begin with not to mention why the company got paid. By encouraging idea cultivation from the grass roots of the organization, Wal*Mart has become the premier retailer at the bottom of the price pole.

This author recommends that Wal*Mart management look to diversify within the store by adding more of what it already does well, maximizing the life experience on the cheap within the store. Other ancillary services could be added to any unprofitable square footage like barber shop, dentists, etc…

Microfiber The most Advantageous Fiber Of The Age

Invention of Microfiber

After years of trialing, Dr. Miyoshi Okamoto scientist of Japan at Toray Industries, invented the world’s first microfiber in 1970 and later his coworker Dr. Toyohiko Hikota improve a new practice and modify Dr. Okamoto’s invention into an remarkable new fabric – Ultrasuede – a non-woven material and the first commercial production of microfiber commenced in 1989, in U.S by E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, Inc.

Microfibers: Very fine fibers

Microfiber is a variety of polyester that has exclusive and advantageous properties compared to other traditional fibers.Microfibers are heavily formed, polyester and polyamide fibers and are one hundred times finer than human hair. The diameter of microfibers is one-quarter of fine wool, one-third of the cotton, half of a fine silk fiber and the density of the material consent it to grip six to eight times of its weight in water.

“Denier” is the word used to describe the diameter or fineness of fiber. One denier measurement means a 9000-meter length of fiber or yarn in the weight of grams. Falling in the category of microfiber the size must be less than one denier i.e. minimum 0.9 denier requirements. Though, many microfibers are available in the size of 0.5 – 0.6 denier or even in less diameter.

Microfibers – User-friendly fiber

Generally, microfiber is a mixture of polyester and polyamide (a nylon by-product) available in a mixture of 80/20, 75/25, or 70/30 etc polyester and polyamide ratios. Microfibers can be available alone or mixed with usual denier man-made fibers as well as with natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk even rayon too. Micro-fibers are made from polyester, nylon, rayon and most recently acrylic. They also can be blended with other fibers including Lycra spandex. These mixtures improve the look; adorn and the performance of the fabric. Micro-fibers can be woven or knitted into a wide range of fabrics such as satin, faille, crepe, twill, taffeta and broadcloth. A variety of microfibers and its finishes improves the appearance and experience like silks, sand washed, or a leather and feather look.

Properties & characteristics of Microfibers

. Lightweight and flexible

. Good stability and shape retention

. Anti-wrinkle property

. Have a wicking ability that permits perspiration

. Comfortable to wear as they are more spongy

. Doesn’t water stain – superior water repellency is available

. Woven or knitted into a very high quality fabric construction

. Formerly commenced as a polyester microfiber, today you can find nylon, rayon and acrylic microfibers too.

. Strong and durable, water repellent and wind resistant -so tightly woven, that the fabric can’t be penetrated by wind, rain or cold

. Lightweight, resilient or resist wrinkling, have a comfortable array, preserve shape and resist pilling

. The positively charged microfibers draw dust; the tiny fibers are capable to enter the microscopic surface voids most materials

. Washable, dries quickly and also washable in at the water temperatures up to 200 degrees and their characteristics will remain intact.

. Electrostatic effect – Hair, lint and other dust particles are attracted and grabbed by the microfibers without lifting dust

. The density of the material allowable it to grip six to eight times its weight in water hence high absorbing power capacity

. The attraction capability of the microfibers is so sound, even absorbs bacteria and germs – hence can be use as germ or bacteria free purpose

. The fabric consists of millions of small tiny conduits that carry oil and grease too.

Benefits of microfibers

Comfortable – very soft, texture like silk, lightweight

. Due to its fineness and superior fiber surface area making deep, rich and bright colors achievable

. Less “sweaty” in warm weather than usual synthetics

. Quickly cleanable – clean just with water

. Highly intense and shrink-resistant

. Presents insulation and breathability

. Change without help – to establish lovely drape

. Very fine – finer than the most precise silk

. More reusable for cleaning alternative – compared to other mops more efficient and long life

The use of microfibers: Endless

The straight and strong fibers of polyester and nylon – microfibers provide flexible and silky performance because of its extensive fiber surface area. Microfibers are used in diverse fabrics ratios to make different textile garments, apparels and used most regularly in dress making.

Today it is used at the optimum level by sportsmen, popular for outerwear and body wear and became a very popular alternative tool of cotton apparel, because due to their properties of air intervenes effortlessly through the fabric, body’s humidity is wicked away immediately from the skin’s surface to the outer face of the fabric and it keeps the athletes cool and dry.

It is also used for making suit jackets, rainwear, outdoor fleece and wind-resistant sportswear, as well as tents, sleeping bags, track and jogging suits and many more uses like automotive, household and health & beauty etc. Endless uses for micro-fiber fabrics covers men’s slacks and ties, women’s silk-like blouses and dresses, hosiery and lingerie, evening wear, children’s wear, intimate apparel, luxurious upholstery fabrics, sheets and pillow cases, high performance filters, artificial blood vessels, sanitary and towel products etc. Even microfibers use to make stockings for men, women and special high length anti-embolism stockings too.

Products such as microfiber towel or napkin are available in the blend of 80% polyester (the scrubbing and cleaning fiber), and 20% polyamide (the absorbing and quick drying fiber, this blend is expressed as “80/20”) or 70/30 or in various blends. Several credible reasons to use microfibers towel are:

. Not generating any problems with those suffering from allergies due to its hypoallergenic properties

. Microfiber absorbing over six to seven times its weight in water – super absorbent

. Microfiber dries in 1/3 the time of regular cleaning towels.

. Microfiber is environmentally friendly washable with just water, have no need of soap or any kind of chemicals.

. Microfiber is over four to five times more effective than ordinary cleaning towels

. Microfiber is totally lint free and non-abrasive compared to other cotton towels

Microfiber became a tremendously efficient cleaning material because of their characteristics of dust appealing and the capacity of entering the microscopic surface which pores of most materials due to their positively charged microfibers. It uses as janitorial and all purpose cleaning and wiping tools or cloths. Even it develops very small cutting boundaries that smash ups and easily sucks up dirt of particular surface, also eliminate oils and other grimy substances immediately. Due to its tremendous washable properties it is also used to clean equipment such as monitors, printers, plastic sheeting, metal surfaces, office & lab equipment and many more.

Today it is considered as a good alternative of cotton mop because it is reusable many times compared to other mopping device or clothes. In hospitals microfibered mopping are widely used due to its electrostatic effect – Hair, lint and other dust particles even bacteria and germs are attracted and grabbed by the microfibers without lifting dust and acts as effective pollution, dust bacteria control device. Without the application of any chemical or a cleaning agent microfiber wipes any surface and can disinfect bacteria/germs up to 99.95%. The result shows that its reduces 95 % chemical cost related to mopping tasks , saves 60% lifetime cost for mopping and saves labor cost about 20% per day.

Taking care of microfibers

Microfibers can usually be treated similar to that of the usual fibers manufactured from the same fiber group or type. For example, fabrics prepared from polyester and nylon microfibers can most likely be cleaned and dried out comparable to fabrics produced from usual polyester and nylon fibers. Viscose rayon functions well when dry-cleaned. Polynosic or high wet modulus rayons are washable in machines.

According to the fiber, whether it is polynosic or viscose-type rayon, rayon microfiber the right treatment of washing the fiber is needed. During dry winter, when heating systems are turned on and the humidity is low static charges may built up in fabrics from synthetic microfibers and temporary spots from unnecessary heat in the dryer may generate on the microfiber, take care during this instance.

. Because fibers such as polyester or nylon are very fine or small in diameter, heat enters the fibers faster than other fibers and due to heat sensitive properties, hence glazing, melting or scorching can arise quickly; a few cares should be required for microfibers.

– Work with a cool iron, do not put down the iron on the fabric too long, don’t pressure too much.

. Bleach smash down the polyester and polyamide microfilaments, representing them not as much of useful hence microfiber products do not required bleach.

– Avoid the use of bleach.

. Coating of “softener” clogs the microfibers.

– Avoid the use fabric softener

. Washing microfiber with other cotton products grab and hold other cotton fibers.

– Avoid washing with other cotton products.

. Microfibers are tremendously fine, putting the garments with jewelry could scrape garment easily and widespread abrasion.

– Avoid making garments with jewelry that is violent or sharp

It is the comfortable experience and appearance of the fabrics which makes microfibers so special for many product lines they can carry their marvelous performance to an extensive and countless uses and today it is considered as the most advantageous fiber of the age.

Revealed – What Does a Controller Really Do? Best Practice Secrets Highlighted

Once the mission and vision are tweaked, Chief Executive Officers (CEO) and other executives are faced with the issue of implementing the new plan. Often that requires extensive help from accounting or finance. Since a number of CEOs, panel creators, and others ask what is the difference between a Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and controller and bookkeeper, you can start with a look at a more detailed definition of a controller.

We will begin with what to expect from the levels of the accounting staff. For the purposes of this discussion, the following will serve as definitions of two of the top players in the accounting department:

Chief Financial Officer -Person who makes the financial statements understandable. This person ranges from a true business partner to a technician.

Controller – Is the working manager for the accounting department. This person ranges from someone on the CFO track to a technician.

Controllers also have highly specialized duties that require a variety of multitasking skills. Again, a person in this position should be able to cover but is not limited to the following tasks:

Controller Duties:

o Manages bookkeeper

o Handles Executive Payroll

o Can sign checks prepared by bookkeeper

o Signs Sales Tax returns

o Creates the more difficult journal entries

o Prepares Financial Statements

o Approves customer credit limits

o Is responsible for payroll processing

o Implements basic financial and accounting systems

o Can coordinate with external Certified Public Accountant (CPA) on tax returns, compilations or audits

o Implements polices and procedures

o Creates non standard reports, including variance reviews

o Handles insurance and risk management with assistance

o Begins safeguarding assets

o Creates budgets

o Inventory overview with assistance

Think of this as a common sense list of how you want to see how this key team member will help you execute strategic programs or processes like: risk management process, enterprise risk management ( ERM), strategic planning, risk assessment, risk management assessment, entire enterprise risk management assessment, operational review, due diligence, or scenario budgeting.

The opportunities you may create from improving your company resources may open up some incredible opportunities for you with competitors whose companies have a weaker management team.

Sexual Hunting in Astrology

The most powerful of all drives in man are the instincts for self-preservation, procreation and sensual pleasure. Sex is a very emotionally charged subject.

Unfortunately for most people, the basic sexual -urge is a reflection of their animal nature.

Sexual hunting is one of the many reasons to create trouble in married life. When husband and wife are not satisfied in each other and they are interested in others to get pleasures.

Factors Responsible For Sexual Hunting

Sign Libra:satisfactory results in love affair and conjugal bliss

7th house from Ascendant/Sun/Moon:represents wife/husband, marriage, marital happiness, and sexual pleasures.

Moon: emotions, desires of human mind, and give courage for passions for sex

Venus: significator of wife in male chart, maintain sexual activities.

Mars:represents martial planet, courage, passion for carnal pleasures.

Jupiter: significator for husband in a female’s chart.

Saturn; separative in nature

Different Combinations for Sexual Hunting

Sign Libra

1.If sign Libra is owned by Moon and Venus, sexual appeal enhances. If they are further aspected by Rahu/Mars the native will involves in corrupt sexual practices.

2. If Libra sign is owned by 4 or more than 4 planets domestic pleasure, cohabitation and conjugal life gets disturbed.

7th house/lord

1.7th lord/Venus be conjoined with nodes Rahu/Ketu and aspected by a malefic the native or his wife will be adulterous in nature.

2.Mars, mercury and Venus in 7th, with no benefice aspects and Jupiter is not in quadrant, render the native passionate and make him seek unnatural sources of gratification.

3.Different position for 7th lord:

A. In 1st house—the native become highly sexual and attracted towards other women. And if 1st lord is also posited in 7th the native will become hetro-sexual.

B. In 2nd house—native will not satisfy with his wife.

C. In 8th house—native goes to prostitutes and loves others women in comparison to his wife.

D. In 12th house— the wife of the native will be highly sexual.

Saturn

1. Afflicted Saturn in 4th house, the native will commit incest.

2. Saturn in 5th/7th house the native will get pleasure from old women.

3. Saturn with Moon/Venus/Mars gives adulterous nature.

4. Saturn in quadrant in its own sign/exaltation the native will become highly sexual.

Jupiter

1. Afflicted Jupiter in 1st/7th/10th/12th house, the native may cross any limit for sexual gratification.

2. Jupiter in 6th house in a male sign makes a person sensuous

Moon

1. Afflicted Moon/Venus in 9th, the native will violate his teacher’s bed.

2. Weak Moon joins a malefic in 7th house, he will corrupt a married women.

3. Moon forming bad aspect with Venus gives pleasure with others partner.

4. If Moon is in the 7th and debilitated, sex relations takes place with maid -servants.

5. Moon in 12th house in Pisces, the native becomes highly sexual.

Venus

1. Venus in 7th makes one passionate.

2. If Venus in Ascendant with lords of 2nd/7th/6th, the native moral character will be questionable.

3. Venus combines Mars/Rahu or aspected by them native will have illegal connections.

4. Afflicted Venus and Mercury in 7th, make the native inclined towards secret pleasures.

Mars

1. Mars in 8th /9th/12th houses, the sexual-urge increases many folds.

2. Mars in the 7th house with no benefices aspects, intercourse occurs with immature girls.

3. Mars in 7th with Saturn the native may have homosexual tendencies

Sexual behaviour like animal

1. If Mars and a malefic in 7th house

2. If Sun in 7th and Mars in 4th house

3. If Mars in 4th and Rahu in 7th house

4. If 7th lord is aspected by Venus occupying a sign of Mars

5. Malefic in three of quadrants

4th house occupied by lords of 2nd/7th/10th, the native will always hunt after another woman.

BY

GEETA JHA [SPIRITUAL HEALER]

INDIA

Signs That a Taurus Man Likes You – 3 Secret Taurus Signs of Attraction

The signs that a Taurus man likes you can sometimes be hard to spot, sometimes he makes it seem like you’re the only woman in the world for him and at other times he acts like he hardly even knows you. The truth is that the Taurus male is cautious about jumping into a full relationship without testing you first. Expect him to be watching your behavior at all times, sizing up whether you are the right woman for him.

The Taurus man cares about his status and how other people view him, so if he takes you out you need to be on your best behavior. Make sure that you make him look high status because this is so important to the Taurus man but can seem to be rather superficial at the start of the potential partnership.

Once he’s decided that you’re the one he’ll ensure that you know that he’s committed to you and sometimes it can feel like he’s acting as if you’re married. Once he’s ready to be with you, he’ll start to make plans for the future together and will quite often suggest that you move in together and start to make plans for your future.

Another sign that he likes you is that he starts to take you out clothes shopping. This might seem strange but again the Taurus is very aware of his status and how your appearance reflects on his social reputation, it also matters to him that you feel that he’s taking care of you and providing for your needs.

Finally, once he’s decided that he wants to be with you you’ll notice that he is quick to suggest that you meet his family and other people that are important to him. If you make an excellent impression with these people then the deal is sealed and he’ll want to settle down, comfortable in the knowledge that he found a woman who managed to pass his tests.

Joseph Brant – Unknown American Hero

In the essay entitled, Joseph Brant Compares Indian and White Civilizations, 1789, Mr.Brant describes his feelings of disgust for White civilization and why he had those feelings. The essay seems be the answer to a question that asked him to compare the civilizations of Indians and Whites. He discusses how his life changed when he was sent to live amongst Whites to be educated when he was an adolescent. Although his people were thought of as savages, he never lost pride in his culture and came to view the White world with contempt.

He states, “We do not hunger and thirst after those superfluities of life, that are theruin of thousands of families among you. Our ornaments, in general, are simple, and easily obtained. Envy and covetousness, those worms that destroy the fair flower of human happiness, are unknown in this climate” (Hoffman & Gjerde, p.198).

Mr. Brant obviously felt that although the Indians were not rich with material wealth, they were happier than Whites because they were not consumed with the greed that comes with money. The Indian nation wore no crown jewels and owned no land, but they were filled with the spirit of God and their ancestors. They had no need for anything else. He also expresses great disdain at how Whites treated other Whites because of class differences.

He states that “The palaces and prisons among you, form a most dreadful contrast. Go to the former places, and you will see, perhaps, a deformed piece of earth swelled with prideBhere descriptions utterly fails!Bcertainly the sight of an Indian torture, is not half so painful to a well informed mind”(Hoffman & Gjerde, p.199). It was hard for him to grasp the concept of a society that claimed to be so God-fearing and holier than thou could treat its inhabitants so badly based on material worth. He had a deep disgust for penal system used by America and Europe. He felt that because the majority of prisoners were confined for debt, White culture had a lot of nerve calling Indian nations cruel because of their different cultural beliefs. At least they were not locking up people for stealing food.

European and American civilization as seen through the eyes of Joseph Brant is a cruel place where gaining material wealth is all that matters and rights of its citizens means little. The estates of widows and orphans were often swallowed up by the court system, most of people that are in prison are there because of debt, and worship of God is second to worship of money. Hypocrisy and greed are its greatest components. The Native American civilization from which he came from, was a place where everyone was treated equally. Materialism did not exist, so there was no need to compete with others over who had the most possessions. Their allegiance was to the Great Spirit and to the land.

In European society, what one owned determined one’s lot in life. People were imprisoned because they owed money. They confiscated land for their own use and whether someone else was living on it did not matter. the Indians had no concept of money and had no need for the glitter and gold of White civilization. They had no laws expect what was written in the hearts of its people. They had no prisons because crimes such as robbery did not exist. There was no need to steal. Everyone was equal and shared their resources. Although their lives were simple, they were richer because they had what many in European civilization did not; a nobility of spirit that could never be crushed. Joseph Brant knew this and that is why he looked upon Whites with contempt.

After much thought, and without prejudice, Joseph Brant felt that his civilization was better than White civilization and he gave some sound advice to Whites that can be used in today’s society. There is a biblical saying that goes, “You without sin cast the first stone,” and that is the point that Joseph Brant makes. The White society that he lived in had to clean up its own backyard before trying to clean up someone else’s. How could a society that claimed to be Christian treats its inhabitants and other cultures so dishonorably? White civilization in the 1700s and in today’s society still have not learned to practice what they so piously preach. How can true liberty for all exist when monetary gain is placed above everything? Those with money and power in White civilization are the ones with liberty and that is not fair to those who are still struggling to find their way. Freedom should not have to come with a price tag attached to it.

The words that Joseph Brant spoke two hundred and fifteen years ago still ring true. “Cease then, while these practices continue among you, to call yourselves Christians, lest you publish to the world your hypocrisy. Cease to call other nations savages, when you are tenfold more the children of cruelty, than they,” (Hoffman & Gjerde, p.199). In the case of the dominant civilization, the pot is still calling the kettle black and it sad that its inhabitants have not learned a thing.

How to Win In Rummy

It is the most difficult task to win in Rummy playing. Though there are many different types of games in cards, the Rummy is one of the most attractive games in the world. there are two types of games in Rummy. One is played with all jokers and the other one is played with opposite jokers. Out of these two types, opposite jokers game is more attractive.

Opposite jokers game is played with double packs without any additional cards. That is in total we have hundred and four cards. A group of six persons would be the best way to play. Each player would be supplied with thireen cards. Before selecting the places, all the six persons should take a card to find the lowest and the highest position. The highest card taker would be the first hand to face the game. The lowest should deal the cards.

The second lowest would cut the joker. The dealer should shuffle the cards properly with burls and after that again shuffle the cards and put them in the table. The cutter should take approximately fifty per cent of the cards into hands and put them separately. He should take out a card from the bunch and put it on the table. This would be the joker for that game. While cutting the joker, there should be atleast thirteen cards below the joker card. The dealer would deal the card by putting one by one for all the six players and after confirming that there are thirteen cards for each player he should put the open card.

If all the other five players are playing the game, the dealer should not play the game.

He has to pay nothing to the winner. He is free from paying any amount to the winner.

There are four jokers in total. If the black 10 is the card, which is on the table as the joker card, all the opposite colour red 10s are jokers. There are four different groups in the cards. They are Spades, Hautins, Diamonds, and Clavers.

Unless you have a deep knowledge of the game, it is not possible for you to win unless luck favours you. It is the most important factor to win the game. It is always better for you to play safe. That is, you must have two jokers or one rummy and one joker. Rummy means, sequence. For example: 2345 or 10JQK or AKQ. While playing with oppostie jokers, you do not need natural rummy. You can use the joker in any place. For example, in 5678, if you have, 568 only, for the place of seven, you can use the joker. So, it is always better to play with a rummy and a joker.

Out of the thirteen cards, there should be at least two sequences. either three and three, or three and four. The rest could be triplets or quarterplets. But if you do not have two rummys, you have to pay full 80 points to the winner.

Since there are five other players playing, the chance of winning the game is just 20%. So, you should be very careful in playing the game. The players who do not follow the natute of the game, loose heavily.

At the beginning, you would be provided with one bank. This means, 200 points. Hundred and twenty points would be given to you and the balance 80 points would be with the owner or with the office. The hundred and twenty points for six games, each 20 points.

Since there are games with different stakes, you have to start with the lower stakes. If you loose two banks amount, then you should try in the next higher stakes. Then only it would be possible for you to recover your loss. So, you have to plan in such a way that you are prepared to play the higher stakes and increase the chance of winning. But if you start to win the lower stakes, you should never try to go for the higher stakes. By the logic of luck, only a few hours you can win, during your complete playing time.

There are many ways to safegurard yourself from losing heavily. There are certain points to be followed while playing the game.

1. You must have a good knowledge about the game, before playing. 

2.Always play safe,that is, never play with only one rummy or with only one joker.
3.You should not be tempted by the formation of cards. It would look very easy, but if you enter, it would be very difficult to get life and you might be in the position to pay the full amount of 80 points.
4.You can play without life, if it is three cards game or two cards game.
5.Do not play four or more cards game. It would be highly difficult to win these types of games. There is only a remote possibility of winning the game.
6.If you do not get life in three picks, it is better to middle drop the cards and ask the next player to continue. In this way you can save half of the amount, that is 40 points.

There are three stages in playing.

1.Drop 2.Middle drop 3. Full or dick or points.

1. Drop: When the dealer deals, you would be supplied with thirteen cards. You have to decide whether your cards are playable or not. If you have life, it would be better for you to start the game. Otherwise, you can say that you are not playing and simply drop the cards into the table. This is only 20 points. If you are the first player to drop the cards, you can shuffle the cards and put it below the main pack of cards.

2. Middle drop: When you do not have life, but when you are playing three cards game or two cards game, you can try for three or four picks. If you do not get life, you can say that you are not interested in continuing the game and you can middle drop it. For this middle drop, you have to pay 40 points to the winner.

3. Full or Dick or Points: When you feel that you have better opportunity for the dick, you can play the game. When all the cards are arranged according to the rules of the game, you have to close one of the fourteen cards in your hand, show the thirteen cards in the table.

While showing the cards, first you have to place three or four cards in the sequence format and then the trips. But, it is not wrong to show the trips first. When everything is correct, your dick becomes valid. The other five players would pay you according to their points. When you are playing for Rummy and Show, or life and dick, if another player wins, you have to pay 80 points. This is full. If you have life, you have to separate them and show them separately, the rest of the cards are your points and you have to pay the points.

But the logic says that the “most powerful cards” is rummy and show. You should never loose your temperament when you loose. Money comes and goes. But if you stay calm, you can concentrate deep on the next game. You never think of the earlier games, when you play the game. If you are really interested in winning, you should be familiar with the game. There are certain terms. You have to understand them and follow the guidelines. You should be very strong in your discards. You can win the game, only when you are strong with the discards. To startwith, you have to discard joker touchers. For example, when the black ten are jokers, you can start your discard either with black 9 or black Jack. Most of the times,it would not suit to the next hand.Never start with a releaser. What is a releaser? When the black tens are jokers, the black seven and the black kinngs are called releasers.

A player would be having only one joker, that too,in the rummy, as 8,9,10 spades. If you discard spade 7,then it would be a boon for him. Then he would start to play. Your dick chance would be doomed. You should be very careful in discarding dead cards. In fact you should try to avoid or delay, discarding the dead cards. What is a dead card?

A dead card is a card, which has been already discarded. For example, your upper hand deals the cards and the open card, say 5 clubs. You would be the first person to play. For you, it is the open card. If it suits to your cards, you are going to take that card, and you are going to discard. But for the other five players, that particular 5 clubs is dead, because they can not use it, since you are crossing it. But when you discard the same 5 clubs, surely it would suit the other players. You may have to loose that game, because of that dead card. You should also avoid discarding the equal card, that is 2 clubs and 8 clubs.

While you are playing the game, you have to watch the discards of others also, and accrording to that you have to discard. Since this is a very deep and interesting game, this knowledge would not be sufficient to win the game. You need more knowledge of the above points. But logically speaking, the luck would favour you in the beginning. You have to take advantage of it and play wisely.

When you start to loose in the beginning, you can continue to play as long as the trend goes and once it stops, you have to quit the game, if you really want to be a winner. If you loose just one or two banks, never mind it. You can win on the next day. When you do not have the game for that day, if you play for a very long time, you may have to loose a huge amount. Self control is the most important factor in this fatal attraction.

If you have self control, tendency of the game, the path of the game, most of the times you can be a winner.

File Integrity Monitoring – PCI DSS Requirements 10, 10.5.5 and 11.5

Although FIM or File-Integrity Monitoring is only mentioned specifically in two sub-requirements of the PCI DSS (10.5.5 and 11.5), it is actually one of the more important measures in securing business systems from card data theft.

What is it, and why is it important?

File Integrity monitoring systems are designed to protect card data from theft. The primary purpose of FIM is to detect changes to files and their associated attributes. However, this article provides the background to three different dimensions to file integrity monitoring, namely:

– secure hash-based FIM, used predominantly for system file integrity monitoring

– file contents integrity monitoring, useful for configuration files from firewalls, routers and web servers

– file and/or folder access monitoring, vital for protecting sensitive data

Secure Hash Based FIM

Within a PCI DSS context, the main files of concern include:

– System files e.g. anything that resides in the Windows/System32 or SysWOW64 folder, program files, or for Linux/Unix key kernel files

The objective for any hash-based file integrity monitoring system as a security measure is to ensure that only expected, desirable and planned changes are made to in scope devices. The reason for doing this is to prevent card data theft via malware or program modifications.

Imagine that a Trojan is installed onto a Card Transaction server – the Trojan could be used to transfer card details off the server. Similarly, a packet sniffer program could be located onto an EPoS device to capture card data – if it was disguised as a common Windows or Unix process with the same program and process names then it would be hard to detect. For a more sophisticated hack, what about implanting a ‘backdoor’ into a key program file to allow access to card data??

These are all examples of security incidents where File-Integrity monitoring is essential in identifying the threat.

Remember that anti-virus defenses are typically only aware of 70% of the world’s malware and an organization hit by a zero-day attack (zero-day marks the point in time when a new form of malware is first indentified – only then can a remediation or mitigation strategy be formulated but it can be days or weeks before all devices are updated to protect them.

How far should FIM measures be taken?

As a starting point, it is essential to monitor the Windows/System32 or SysWOW64 folders, plus the main Card Data Processing Application Program Folders. For these locations, running a daily inventory of all system files within these folders and identifying all additions, deletions and changes. Additions and Deletions are relatively straightforward to identify and evaluate, but how should changes be treated, and how do you assess the significance of a subtle change, such as a file attribute? The answer is that ANY file change in these critical locations must be treated with equal importance. Most high-profile PCI DSS security breaches have been instigated via an ‘inside man’ – typically a trusted employee with privileged admin rights. For today’s cybercrime there are no rules.

The industry-acknowledged approach to FIM is to track all file attributes and to record a secure hash. Any change to the hash when the file-integrity check is re-run is a red alert situation – using SHA1 or MD5, even a microscopic change to a system file will denote a clear change to the hash value. When using FIM to govern the security of key system files there should never be any unplanned or unexpected changes – if there are, it could be a Trojan or backdoor-enabled version of a system file.

Which is why it also crucial to use FIM in conjunction with a ‘closed loop’ change management system – planned changes should be scheduled and the associated File Integrity changes logged and appended to the Planned Change record.

File Content/Config File Integrity Monitoring

Whilst a secure hash checksum is an infallible means of identifying any system file changes, this does only tell us that a change has been made to the file, not what that change is. Sure, for a binary-format executable this is the only meaningful way of conveying that a change has been made, but a more valuable means of file integrity monitoring for ‘readable’ files is to keep a record of the file contents. This way, if a change is made to the file, the exact change made to the readable content can be reported.

For instance, a web configuration file (php, aspnet, js or javascript, XML config) can be captured by the FIM system and recorded as readable text; thereafter changes will be detected and reported directly.

Similarly, if a firewall access control list was edited to allow access to key servers, or a Cisco router startup config altered, then this could allow a hacker all the time needed to break into a card data server.

One final point on file contents integrity monitoring – Within the Security Policy/Compliance arena, Windows Registry keys and values are often included under the heading of FIM. These need to be monitored for changes as many hacks involve modifying registry settings. Similarly, a number of common vulnerabilities can be identified by analysis of registry settings.

File and/or Folder Access Monitoring

The final consideration for file integrity monitoring is how to handle other file types not suitable for secure hash value or contents tracking. For example, because a log file, database file etc will always be changing, both the contents and the hash will also be constantly changing. Good file integrity monitoring technology will allow these files to be excluded from any FIM template.

However, card data can still be stolen without detection unless other measures are put in place. As an example scenario, in an EPoS retail system, a card transaction or reconciliation file is created and forwarded to a central payments server on a scheduled basis throughout the trading day. The file will always be changing – maybe a new file is created every time with a time stamped name so everything about the file is always changing.

The file would be stored on an EPoS device in a secure folder to prevent user access to the contents. However, an ‘inside man’ with Admin Rights to the folder could view the transaction file and copy the data without necessarily changing the file or its attributes. Therefore the final dimension for File Integrity Monitoring is to generate an alert when any access to these files or folders is detected, and to provide a full audit trail by account name of who has had access to the data.

Much of PCI DSS Requirement 10 is concerned with recording audit trails to allow a forensic analysis of any breach after the event and establish the vector and perpetrator of any attack.

Simple Binary-Weighted and R/2R Ladder DAC

A simple 4-bit digital-to-analog converter that is constructed from a digitally controlled switch (74HC4066), a set of binary-weighted resistors, and an operational amplifier. The basic idea is to create an inverting amplifier circuit whose gain is controlled by changing the input resistance Rin. The 74HC4066 and the resistors together act as a digitally controlled Rin that can take on one of 16 possible values. (You can think of the 74HC4066 and resistor combination as a digitally controlled current source. Each new binary code applied to the inputs of the 74HC4066 generates a new discrete current level that is summed by RF to provide a new discrete output voltage level.) We choose scaled resistor values of R, R/2, R/4, and R/8 to give Rin discrete values that are equally spaced. To find all possible values of Rin, we use the formula provided. This formula looks like the old resistors- in-parallel formula, but we must exclude those resistors which are not selected by the digital input code-that’s what the coefficients A through D are for (a coefficient is either 1 or 0, depending on the digital input).

Now, to find the analog output voltage, we simply use Vout = −Vin (RF/Rin)-the expression used for the inverting amplifier shows what we get when we set Vin = −5 V, R = 100 kΩ, and RF = 20 kΩ, and take all possible input codes. The binary-weighted DAC shown above is limited in resolution (4-bit, 16 analog levels). To double the resolution (make an 8-bit DAC), you might think to add another 74HC4066 and R/16, R/32, R/64, and R/128 resistors. In theory, this works; in reality, it doesn’t. The problem with this approach is that when we reach the R/128 resistor, we must find a 0.78125-kΩ resistor, assuming R = 100 kΩ. Assuming we can find or construct an equivalent resistor network for R/128, we’re still in trouble because the tolerances of these resistors will screw things up. This scaled-resistor approach becomes impractical when we deal with resolutions of more than a few bits.

To increase the resolution, we scrap the scaled-resistor network and replace it with an R/2R ladder network-the manufacturers of DAC ICs do this as well. An R/2R DAC uses an R/2R resistor ladder network instead of a scaled-resistor network, as was the case in the previous DAC. The benefit of using the R/2R ladder is that we need only two resistor values, R and 2R. The trick to understanding how the R/2R ladder works is realizing that the current drawn through any one switch is always the same, no matter if it is thrown up or thrown down. If a switch is thrown down, current will flow through the switch into ground (0 V). If a switch is thrown up, current will flow toward virtual ground- located at the op amp’s inverting input (recall that if the non inverting input of an op amp is set to 0 V, the op amp will make the inverting input 0 V, via negative feedback). Once you realize that the current through any given switch is always constant, you can figure that the total current (I) supplied by Vref will be constant as well. Once you’ve got that, you figure out what fractions of the total current passes through each of the branches within the R/2R network using simple circuit analysis.