Historiography of the Peace Conference of 1919 and Surrounding Events

The events of history have been documented as an objective form of non-fiction throughout time. The way in which historians compose these events is termed historiography. Historiography in its simplest terms is a historical form of literature. A more accurate description of historiography is that it is the principles, theories, or methodology of scholarly historical research and presentation. It is also the writing of history based on a critical analysis, evaluation, and selection of authentic source materials, as well as composition of these materials into a narrative subject. It is the study of how historians interpret the past. Historiography is a debate and argument about previous and current representations of the past. Historiography is present in all historical works big and small. The notorious Peace Conference of 1919 has received its fair share of historiography. There are many viewpoints and interpretations of the ins and outs of the peace conference by vast numbers of historians; the historical works that will be focused on in this composition are The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe 1918-1933 by Sally Marks, The Peace Conference of 1919 by F.S. Marston, Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939 by W.M. Jordan, and Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World by Margaret MacMillan.

The extent as to which the conference was discussed varies by historian. Sally Marks’ The Illusion of Peace, is broken down into six chapters that focus primarily on peace. These chapters are titled The Pursuit of Peace, The Effort to Enforce the Peace, The Revision of the Peace, The Years of Illusion, The Crumbling of Illusion, and The End of All Illusion. For the sake of this composition we will focus on chapter 1, The Pursuit of Peace, which deals primarily with the Peace Conference. Marks begins The Illusion of Peace by stating that “major wars often provide the punctuation marks of history, primarily because they force drastic realignments in the relationships among states.” F.S. Marston chose to take a slightly different route in recording the occurrences of the Peace Conference in his The Peace Conference of 1919. Marston’s main focus was not on the concept of peace itself but the actual procedure of the Peace Conference. In the preface of The Peace Conference of 1919, he states that his purpose for writing the book was because “there was an obvious need for an objective analysis of the organization of the Conference.” Marston breaks The Peace Conference of 1919 into eighteen chapters. These chaoters go into great detail about the characteristics of the conference. The book begins with “The Paris Peace Conference was a unique gathering of the nations. We are still perhaps too near it and too deeply involved in its consequences to make a final appraisal of its work.”

Another perspective to be discussed is that of W. M. Jordan in Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939, which is divided into seventeen chapters. These chapters discuss everything from the concepts of peace of 1914-1918 to the European framework of territorial settlement. Professor C. K. Webster states in the foreword of Great Britain, France, and the German Problem that “this study makes painful but salutary reading. It faces relentlessly certain facts which have produced the world in which we live now. It is objective, and the author has taken the greatest care to be as fair to France as to Britain.” The last perspective to be discussed is that of Margaret MacMillan, who, by far, presents the most information on the Peace Conference out of the previous listed historians. Her Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, has eight parts and thirty chapters. In the foreword written by Richard Holbrooke, it is stated that MacMillan’s account of the seminal event in Paris 1919 contains several success stories, but is measured against the judgment of history and consequences.

Marks begins, early on in the Illusion of Peace, discussing the sudden collapse of Germany and the surprise it caused to the victors. The defeat of Germany was so prevalent in the minds of the Allies that they failed to consider planning the peace that follows after war. Marks stressed that what little peace planning that was in progress was not even close to being considered effective. She states that out of all of the major Allies, the French were the closest to being the best prepared for matters of peace. She gave the reasoning behind this to be that the French had a predetermined notion of what mattered to them and were less than interested in what occurred on a global scale. Marks writes that the American standpoint on peace was obscured by President Woodrow Wilson’s highly ambiguous Fourteen Points, which are ideally good points, but from a realistic standpoint face a difficult time being implemented because of their complexities.

As for the location of the Peace Conference, Marks writes that Paris was not the ideal place for such a conference. Paris was considered a poor location because “wartime passion [ran] higher there than any other location” and the capital was in no condition, after four years of war, to provide lodging and other important amenities to the leaders. In the first chapter, Marks, uses Erich Eyck’s A History of the Weimar Republic to support information on the relationship between the Allies and Germany. She also discusses the fatal influenza that was sweeping across Europe and the rest of the world. During this discussion, Marks writes that Germany was fortunate in that its people were not starving like the rest of the war torn countries. As for the actual conference, Marks writes that “When the conference finally got down to business, it functioned very haphazardly. Much of the work was done by committees.” She elaborates on this statement by stating that several things played a major part in the haphazardness of the decisions made. Some of these things included influence and idiosyncrasy, and personality and prejudice. When dealing with the League of Nations, Marks writes that provided the circumstances of such damaging characteristics the League was set up to fail and the creation of such a thing presented a misleading illusion of peace that was impossible to achieve.

In Marks’ recordings of the Treaty of Versailles, she explains that the treaty has been criticized a great deal throughout history and deserves to be because of its numerous inadequacies and lack of attention to “economic realities.” Marks writes that despite the criticisms for the economic aspects of the treaty, great care had been taken in the preservation of economic units by the Allied leaders. She presents several different views of certain events in order to provide the reader with as much objectivity as is possible. She explains that despite what has been recorded or despite popular belief, there is always room for argument as to what was and was not effective during the Peace Conference of 1919. The last pages of The Illusion of Peace are dedicated to a chronological table of the events that took place before, during, and after the Peace Conference. There is an extensive bibliography that includes documents and official publications, such as the official journal of the League of Nations, and diaries, letters, and memoirs, such as David Lloyd George’s Memoirs of the Peace Conference. An extensive number of secondary sources were used in addition to several periodicals as well. The last component of The Illusion of Peace is Marks’ notes and references. All in all, this account of the Peace Conference of 1919 was presented in an unbiased and informative manner.

F. S. Marston took on the role of composing a historical rendition of the organization and procedure of the conference in The Peace Conference of 1919. Marston’s position on the organization of the conference is as follows: “The following pages will show the extent to which the throwing away of the fruits of victory twenty-five years ago was due to premature relaxation of effort and failure to make immediate use of the organization that had been so laboriously developed.” One of the first things included in The Peace Conference of 1919 was a chart depicting the general organization of the conference. The Council of Ten is the center of this chart, which branches out into the sub-councils, which in turn branch out into smaller more centralized committees. Marston describes the conference in relation to earlier conferences and events. According to Marston, the most critical development that occurred in the year 1917, just two years before the Peace Conference, the Supreme War Council was formally established. Marston includes references from General Bliss to reiterate a fact about the war council and its roles. The primary function of the council was to monitor the conduct of the war, but it also acted as a political body.

After discussing the Supreme War Council, Marston proceeds into discussing the Armistices in chapter two. Within the first paragraph, Marston writes that “The main background to the peace negotiations of 1919 was foreshadowed by the German Note of 4th October asking President Wilson to take the necessary steps to secure a suspension of hostilities.” The bulk of Marston’s information is based on times, dates, and locations. Chapter two does not focus so much on who did what, but rather when the event took place and for how long did the event last. Marston jumps from the Armistice to the Conference in chapter three and in chapter four. He begins chapter three by discussing the importance of the time interval between the Armistice and the Peace Conference. “It was a time of intense diplomatic activity, but of very little tangible progress, preparation for the Conference being combined with complete uncertainty as to the exact point at which it was to take charge of the negotiations” writes Marston.

In the remaining chapters Marston continues to explain and present the organizational characteristics of the Conference in great detail. The very last chapter is titled Retrospect and includes Marston’s view on how the Peace Conference of 1919 has affected the world and how it will continue to leave its mark. He writes “The Peace Conference of 1919 must certainly occupy an important place in the long succession of similar gatherings, if only because of the scale on which it was organized.” Immediately following the Retrospect, is the Chronology. Marston’s bibliography includes documents, diaries and letters, and general works, followed by his many references. He presents the information about the Peace Conference critically at times, believing that the conference was inadequate in performing the duties it was set to perform.

The perspective of W. M. Jordan, in Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939, is one that focuses on disarmament, reparation, and security during the events surrounding the Peace Conference and the events of the Peace Conference. Jordan admits to omitting information that strictly “belongs to the history of this central problem.” As with the historical works discussed previously, Jordan begins chapter one, titled Concepts of Peace: 1914-1918, discussing the events that led up to the Peace Conference of 1919. He focuses on the breakdown of the Versailles settlement among other things. Jordan quotes several key people in the events of 1914-1918. One such person, was an American writer or European origin. This writer, according to Jordan, stressed the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, was held at esteem by the British because of his principles of idealism. Jordan discussed that “the idealism which inspired the Allied cause in the Great War of 1914-1918 was, in the first instance, the achievement of British Liberalism.” This war was inadvertently a war for democracy. Jordan presented the idea that it is important to understand that the war was not directed at the German people, rather at the Prussian military caste that was controlling them. Jordan also presents two more reasons for the war: the war was meant to liberate nations and become a war to end war. Jordan includes excerpts from Lloyd George’s speeches to convey this message. He focuses a great deal on President Woodrow Wilson’s role in the quest for peace. When discussing the Fourteen Points, Jordan admits that they are too well known to need to be quoted.

In chapter two of Great Britain, France, and the German Problem, Jordan discusses the fact that “historians have paid little attention to the preparation of the document signed on 11th November 1918, which set out the military and naval terms with which Germany was required to comply as a condition of the suspension of warfare.” The purpose of this chapter was to study the political implications of the Armistice. This document started the ball rolling on the Peace Conference. The major players in the composition of the Armistice were Haig, Foch, and Bliss. Jordan discusses that the study of the conflicting views of the three men reveals that the problems with the armistice’s military terms were not of a military order, but of a political order. During this discussion, Jordan presents the reader with several questions of the actions of the three men. It is also, in chapter two in which Jordan opposes the notion that the armistice was drafted mostly from President Wilson’s policy. He states, “The claim is hardly well founded.”

The subsequent chapters of Jordan’s Great Britain, France, and the German Problem, discuss the actual Peace Conference and the results of the conference. Chapter 3 is titled The Conference and the Treaty. In the opening paragraph, Jordan gives a description of what to expect from the chapter. According to Jordan, the Peace Conference’s course of negotiations in relation to the main aspects of the settlement between Europe and Germany is “given separate consideration” in the concluding chapters. Jordan believes that the chronological order of the Conference’s sequence of events is broken up by such an arrangement. He writes, “It may be desirable to preface this chapter by a short composite account of the negotiations in 1919.” Jordan also records the illnesses of the conference’s key players in chapter three. He describes how President Wilson falling ill played a part in changing the speed of the conference. Lloyd George began to lose hope for a quick resolution after Wilson became ill and was not able to participate in the Council of Four.

Jordan goes to great lengths to remain objective in his descriptions of the personal characters of the leaders. He uses a great amount of quoted material from Lloyd George, President Wilson, and Clemenceau. There is a rather lengthy excerpt from a speech given by Clemenceau on December 29, 1918. This speech was Clemenceau’s response to a challenge by Albert Thomas on the eve of the Conference. Jordan is full of questions about the events of the Conference; on every page there is a question or some form of insight presented to be pondered upon by the reader. Jordan presents the perspective of several different countries during the Conference. He discusses the plight that France faced as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. Jordan writes, “France is now left to bear alone the brunt of German resentment. She must insist on the payment or reparation; she must protect the new settlement against disturbance by Germany.” Jordan explains that Great Britain’s opinion of the Treaty of Versailles was condemning and spawned many debates. In describing the views of the Treaty, Jordan presents the idea that worrying over the criticism the Treaty of Versailles was receiving, necessitated too much digression and is unessential. He focuses on the misjudgment of the purpose of the Treaty. He writes, “That the Treaty had been conceived in the wrong spirit-this was the more general and the more trenchant charge.” In discussing the Treaty, Jordan includes his evaluations of many historical works, one of which was Economic Consequences of the Peace by J. M. Keynes. He focuses his attention on two passages of which he claims come to the conclusion that the Treaty was “incompatible with the economic prosperity of Europe.” Jordan stresses the idea that Mr. Keynes’ economic criticisms were embedded in political philosophy. Jordan provides a historical work of the Peace Conference of 1919 that transcends the times in which it was written. He is bold in his statements, forthcoming with his questions, and fair as one can be in discussing the leaders themselves.

One of the most recent historical renditions of the Peace Conference of 1919 is Margaret MacMillan’s Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, which was published in 2001. MacMillan provides a well balanced look at the events in Paris in 1919. She is able to work past the easily taken road of blaming the many ills the world has experienced since this time on the Peace Conference. MacMillan also readily admits that many mistakes were made by the peacemakers. Some of these mistakes could have been easily avoided. Macmillan does an excellent job in taking into consideration the many factors that made many of the decisions made during the Conference seem more reasonable. She addresses countless issues involved in the meetings and committees of the Versailles conference, as well as the politics involved amongst the victorious allies. She addresses the fact that the Conference is most remembered for the production of the Treaty of Versailles; however, she writes, “but it was always about much more than that. The other enemies had to have their treaties.” MacMillan seems biased and apologetic. She attempts to win over readers by using an unorthodox approach which is oblivious to the balance of historical facts. For example, MacMillan explains that Keynes was “A very clever, rather ugly young man.” Keynes physical attraction seems irrelevant to the events surrounding the Treaty of Versailles, but MacMillan finds it important to make such a statement in describing his entire character. She also makes it a point to bring up the idea that the “Big Three” leaders were from democratic governments.

The format of Paris 1919 is interesting because each chapter focuses on a specific area of the conference. As a reference it is helpful, because each country is focused on in its own chapter. The negative side to this format is that it eliminates the chronological flow of the conference; therefore, making it difficult for the reader to follow the order of event occurrences. The cultural differences among the French, English, American and Italian as well as the German, Japanese, Chinese, Greek and others was outlined rather thoroughly by MacMillan. This book goes section by section through the world and talks about the effects of peace on the east, Middle East, Africa, and Europe. It redraws the borders, shows the alienation of Italy as well as the harshness of German reparations. The failure of the League of Nations is coached in this treaty and these six months were a catastrophe for the world. She also outlines the evolution of America into a world power. MacMillan addresses the contrast among President Woodrow and his European counterparts. Wilson was adamant about international morality; whereas, his counterparts focused on national gains as a result of the war. “Hitler did not wage war because of the Treaty of Versailles,” MacMillan writes in her concluding chapter. Even if Germany had retained everything that was taken from it at Versailles, he would have wanted more: “the destruction of Poland, control of Czechoslovakia, above all the conquest of the Soviet Union” as well of course as the annihilation of the Jews.”

In the introduction of Paris 1919, MacMillan writes “We know something of what it is to live at the end of a great war. When the Cold War ended in 1989 and Soviet Marxism vanished into the dustbin of history, older forces, religion, and nationalism, came out of their deep freeze.” She believes that it is a valid argument that resurgent Islam is our current menace; whereas, in 1919, the menace was Russian Bolshevism. Chapter one is dedicated to discussing Woodrow Wilson and his trip to Europe; a trip that is in itself one for the history books. This is so because never before had a United States President ever traveled to Europe while in office. MacMillan focuses on Wilson’s biographical information; discussing when and where he was born and the way of life during this time. She also discusses in great detail, Wilson’s struggle with depression and illness. This discussion can lead one to doubt Wilson’s credibility and ability to make proper judgments during the Peace Conference, because of his weakened mental state. MacMillan goes so far as to discuss President Wilson’s relationships with women and the gossip surrounding such relationships. She writes, “During his first marriage he had close, possibly even romantic, friendships with several women.”

Chapter four is dedicated to one of Wilson’s counterparts, Lloyd George. This chapter begins almost like a fictional novel. MacMillan writes, “On January 11, David Lloyd George bounded with his usual energy onto a British destroyer for the Channel crossing.” This is a rather playful description of the British leader. It seems a bit out of place in a historical rendition of a vastly serious world event. MacMillan goes into great detail about his character and physical appearance as well. MacMillan seems to place great emphasis on building up the British leader. Her objectivity can be questioned because of her familial connection to Lloyd George; she is his granddaughter, a fact that she fails to acknowledge in Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World. Armed with this information, it is hard for the reader not to see the pedestal Lloyd George is placed upon by MacMillan.

MacMillan’s chapter five moves beyond the descriptions of the leaders and moves into their unity as the “League of the People.” It is in this chapter in which MacMillan deals with the composition of the Supreme Council. In addition to discussing the Council, MacMillan deems it important to provide the reader with descriptions of meeting places and how they appear present day. She writes, “The great staterooms at the Quai d’Orsay have survived the passage of time and a later German occupation surprisingly well.” She goes so far as to even describe the furnishings and color scheme of the room. MacMillan provides a great deal of information on the meeting held in places such as this. She writes that the Supreme Council met at least once a day, sometimes two or three times. These events led to the creation of The League of Nations, which MacMillan writes, “Only a handful of eccentric historians still bother to study the League of Nations.”

MacMillan recorded a thorough rendition of the Peace Conference of 1919 in Paris 1919. She left no area of interest untouched. Her four hundred ninety-four page work is broken into eight lengthy units which include thirty chapters total. She includes maps of Europe in 1914, Germany and Europe in 1920, East Central Europe in 1919, The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, The Middle East from the Treaty of Sevres to the Treaty of Lausanne, China and the Pacific 1914-1919, and Africa in 1919. She also includes many different photographs taken during the Peace Conference and its surrounding events. She addresses issues in many different countries; such as, China, Poland, Palestine, Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to name a few. MacMillan’s appendix is composed of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points and nothing else. She has a very extensive bibliography and an extensive note section. MacMillan’s evaluations of the many different works lead to a rather interesting historical rendition of a complicated and controversial period in history.

There is little doubt that the events, and the outcome, of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 played a major role in changing the world. Every historian discussed in this paper believed this to be so. Their views on certain aspects of the Conference, and how significant certain aspects were, may vary. All works are presented, in their forewords, as objective historical works that are composed of by extensive evaluations of other historical works and documents. The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe 1918-1933 by Sally Marks, The Peace Conference of 1919 by F.S. Marston, Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939 by W.M. Jordan, and Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World by Margaret MacMillan have provided readers with different views of the Conference. The way in which these historians composed their views of the Conference is termed historiography, which can described as, simply, a historical form of literature. A more accurate description of historiography is that it is the principles, theories, or methodology of scholarly historical research and presentation. Marks, Marston, Jordan, and MacMillan combined all of these aspects to carry on the legacy of Peace Conference of 1919 and the end of the First World War.

References

Jordan. W.M. Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939. Surrey, England: Gresham Press, 1971.

MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World. New York: Random House, 2001.

Marks, Sally. The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe 1918-1933. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1976.

Marston, F.S. The Peace Conference of 1919. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1944.

The National Centre for History Education. “What is Historiography-and why is it Important?” Available from http://www.hyperhistory.org/index.php?option=displaypage&Itemid=735&op=page. Internet; accessed 23 April 2008.

Matthew Arnold’s Concept of Hebraism and Hellenism

Matthew Arnold (1822-1888), a literary figure of the Victorian age, comes next to Browning and Tennyson. He is a poet, critic, religious thinker and educationist. He has the experience of twenty- four years as the inspector of schools. It provided him so much time to meet the different classes and examine their behaviours and habits. This experience pursued him to write ‘Culture & Anarchy’. In his book, he has also discussed various topics about true culture. In this book, he has discussed Hebraism and Hellenism.

In the inception of the topic, he discusses doing and thinking. His general view about human beings is that they prefer to act rather than to think. He rejects it because mankind is to err and he can not always think right, but it comes seldom in the process of reasoning and meditation, or he is not rightly guided by the light of true reason. The nation follows the voice of its conscience and its best light, but it is not the light of true reason except darkness. In his opinion, the nation is energy or the capacity of doing but it is not intelligence or capacity of thinking rightly. Such energy that has the sense of obligation and duty must be related to the best light.

He talks about the great idea to know and the great energy to act. Both are the most potent forces, and they should be in harmony by the light of reason. So, they are Hebraism and Hellenism. He insists on the balance of the both thought and action (Hellenism and Hebraism). The final aim of Hellenism and Hebraism is the same as man’s perfection and salvation. He further discusses that the supreme idea with Hellenism or the Greek Spirit is to see things as they really are, and the supreme idea of Hebraism or the Spirit of Bible is conduct and obedience. He points out that the Greek philosophy considers that the body and its desires are an impediment to right thinking, where as Hebraism considers that the body and its desires are an obstacle to right action. The root idea of the both is the desire for reason and the will of God, and the desire of love of God. Hebraism studies the universal order and observes the magnificence of God apparent in the order, whereas Hellenism follows with flexible activity. Thus Hellenism acquires spontaneity of consciousness with a clearness of mind, and Hebraism achieves a strictness of conscience with its clarity of thought. In brief, Hebraism shows stress on doing rather than knowing, and follows the will of God. Its primary idea is absolute obedience to the will of God.

Hellenism and Hebraism both are directly connected to the life of human beings. Hellenism keeps emphasis on knowing or knowledge, where as Hebraism fastens its faith in doing. The concluding aim of both is the partaking of divine life with knowledge and action. He describes that the Bible reveals the truth which awards the peace of God and liberty. The simple idea of Hellenism is to get rid of ignorance and to see things as they are and to search beauty from them. Socrates, as Hellenic, states that the best man is he who tries to make himself perfect, and the happiest man is he who feels that he is perfecting himself. He does not tell us how it is to be done, and how to see things in their reality and beauty.

Now, Matthew Arnold turns to Sin that spoils the efforts to achieve Hellenism. He is of the opinion that Sin is an obstacle to perfection because it brings hurdles in knowing ourselves; it impedes man’s passage to perfection. He calls it a mysterious power that is hostile to man. The discipline of the Holy Scripture teaches how to avoid and stop the Sin. Therefore, Hellenism speaks of thinking clearly and seeing things in their essence and beauty; where as Hebraism speaks of becoming conscious of the Sin and keeping away from it.

In this treatise, Arnold asserts that there is enough of Hellenism in the English nation, and he emphasizes on Hebraism, because it is based on conduct and self- control. He admits that the age is incapable of governing itself in the pursuit of perfection, and the bright promise of Greek ideal is faded. Now the obedience or submission must be to the rules of conduct, as expressed by the Holy Scripture (Bible).Hellenism lays its main stress on clear intelligence, where as Hebraism keeps main stress on firm obedience, moral power and character.

Arnold talks about the idea of immortality as illustrated by St. Paul, the Christian saint and Plato, the Greek philosopher, but the both have left something unexplained. So, the problem of human spirit is still unsolved in both Hebraism and Hellenism. In this respect, the writer finds triumph of the great movement of Christianity on the man’s moral impulses. He accepts that Renaissance re-established Hellenism and man’s intellectual impulses in Europe and Puritanism embraced the blessings of both Hellenism and Hebraism. In Reformation, there was the more influence of Hebraism than Hellenism. It was strong and in it, there was a grave return to the Bible and to doing the will of God from the heart. The superiority of Puritanism over Catholicism was moral, as the result of its greater sincerity and greater earnestness. Arnold says that the attitude of mind of Puritanism towards the Bible in no respect differs from the attitude of mind of catholism towards the church.

The 16th century stood Hellenism face to face with Hebraism. Hebraism was renewed and purged, but Hellenism of Renaissance lost its moral character. One thing must be viewed that Hellenism is of Indo-European growth and Hebraism is of Semitic growth. Those who belonged to Indo-European stock showed their natural affinity to Hellenism. The English Puritanism restored the conscience and moral sense of Hebraism to the English in 16th century. It saved the nation from moral unresponsiveness and lethargic rule of conduct which came with Renaissance in the 16th century. It was a reaction of Hebraism against Hellenism. If Hellenism was defeated by Hebraism, it showed Hellenism was imperfect.

The defeat of Hellenism by early Christianity and the defeat of Hellenism by Puritanism was the result of Renaissance stress on the progress of humanism and science. It inclined man to knowing himself and the world, to seeing the things as they are and to the spontaneity of consciousness. Despite it, the main inclination of the English nation was towards strictness of conscience.

In conclusion, it must be added that the rule of life should be based on the theory of Hellenism and Hebraism because the final aim of both is man’s perfection or salvation.

An Analysis of Imagery and Satire in ‘Bliss’ – A Short Story by Katherine Mansfield

Katherine Mansfield was one of the very few writers in English to succeed in establishing a reputation entirely on the basis of the short story form. This article explores Mansfield’s short story ‘Bliss’, illustrating in particular how the author employs symbolic imagery as a means to satirize her characters. Mansfield is regarded as a literary modernist. In her writing she arrived at a singular prose style which utilized associated imagery within an integrated symbolic language. The ‘tall, slender, pear tree in fullest, richest bloom’ (p.177), is arguably the central image of ‘Bliss’.

In this story Mansfield uses imagery as an effective means of satire. Observed from Bertha’s perspective, the pretentious Mrs Norman Knight’s coat, adorned with a frieze of monkeys, appears to enhance the woman’s simian appearance. This particular image is subsequently bolstered when Mrs Norman Knight is described as ‘crouched before the fire in her banana skins’ (p.180). The recurrent image of the moon is also laughably alluded to with the ridiculous Eddie Warren’s ‘immense white silk scarf’ (p.179) and matching white socks.

Bertha is satirized through the colours of her outfit evoking the earlier description of the pear tree: ‘A white dress, a string of jade beads, green shoes and stockings… She had thought of this scheme hours before she stood at the drawing-room window’ (p.178). Although imagery is frequently employed in aesthetic art, Mansfield is clearly using it for instructive purposes, as satire is largely viewed as an instrumental device. Through her complex figurative associations, she is highlighting the naivety of Bertha and the absurd mediocrity of her guests.

‘Bliss’ is related from an impartial perspective which invites the reader to assess the characters with little to no authorial influence. It is written in the third-person, although there are rare moments of second-person viewpoint, apparent in the use of the word ‘you’, deployed in the line: ‘What can you do if you are thirty and, turning the corner of your own street, you are overcome, suddenly, by a feeling of bliss’ (p.174). Mansfield’s choice to address the reader directly here serves to further immerse them within her narrative. ‘Bliss’ also launches into the story with little in the way of narrative exposition.

A major characteristic of the modernist short story is that it discounted plot in favour of epiphany. Epiphany in literature is a profoundly dramatic scene where a character (or reader) is enlightened through some sort of revelation. Mansfield knowingly employed it as the focal point in many of her stories, for example, in ‘Bliss’ the whole narrative framework appears to function as a build up to Bertha realising her husband is having an affair with Pearl Fulton: ‘His lips said: “I adore you,” and Miss Fulton laid her moonbeam fingers on his cheeks and smiled her sleepy smile’ (p.85). This shocking revelation is consolidated by the fact that Bertha was under the illusion she shared a profound friendship with Miss Fulton, apparent in the scene where the two women are admiring the pear tree: ‘How long did they stand there? Both, as it were, caught in that circle of unearthly light, understanding each other perfectly’ (p.183).

Katherine Mansfield instrumentally employed imagery and symbolism as an effective means to satirize the naivety and pretensions of her characters in ‘Bliss’.

Use the Bias Indicator to Help You With Your Day Trading

What is the 30 Minute Bias Indicator and how can I use it? What is the Bias Indicator (BI) The Bias Indicator is basically based on the share price opening range We will investigate: How to select stocks to trade Entry tactics Stop loss settings

The Bias Indicator is defined in terms of time and price. The time element is simply the first X number of minutes in the trading day. The number of minutes used to define the Bias Indicator is your decision as a trader. I define the Bias Indicator as the first 30 minutes of the trading day. I have found this period to work the best for my strategies that are geared towards day trading.

I will focus on the 30 minute BI because I think that this is the best time frame to use for Day trading. I believe that the market tends to experience a reversal period around 10:30 A.M., as many reports are released between about 9:30 A.M. and 10:30 A.M. Fund managers also seem to start their daily inputs around this time. So the 30 minute BI includes both of these factors.

The price component of the BI is the day’s trading range at the end of the BI time period. This means that the 30 minute BI is defined as the stock’s high and low for the day at 10:30 A.M.

The BI is not the opening price. In fact, the opening price is not a factor in calculating the BI. For example, if BHP were to open at $26.49 and then sell off to $26.06 at 10:15 AM and then reverse and rally to $26.86 at 10:30 A.M. the 30 minute BI would be the day’s range at 10:30 A.M. or $26.06 – $26.86. This is because during the 30 minute BI period $26.06 and $26.86 were BHP’s low and high, respectively.

Note: I said the day’s range at 10:30 A.M., not the range for the whole day.

The easiest way to mark the Bias Indicator Range is to use an intraday candle chart, set at 30 minutes interval. The first complete candle then gives you the Bias Indicator Range. Draw a line on top of the candle and one on the bottom of the candle and you have today’s BI marked on your chart.

As you can see, defining the BI is easy. The 30-minute BI is strictly the high and the low of the first 30 minutes of trading. I find that the BI often reveals the bias of a stock for the day.

Why is the Bias Indicator so powerful?

The fact that the BI is assessing such an informative period means that it can often determine the bias for the day as being bullish, bearish, or neutral. The BI represents how the bulls and bears establish their initial positions for the day. A move away from the BI indicates that one side is stronger than the other. A stock moving above the BI means the prevailing sentiment in the stock is bullish. The manner in which the stock breaks above and trades above the BI will indicate the strength of the bullish sentiment. The same but opposite analysis applies when a stock moves below its BI.

A move below the BI indicates that the stock is weak and the bears are in control.

How can we use the BI to help us in our day or short term trading?

The most basic application of the BI principle is that when a stock is trading above its Bias Indicator you should have a bullish bias, and when it is trading below its Bias Indicator you should have a bearish bias.

Trading any breakout from the BI breakout is a simple concept, but there are some considerations to take care of and a few tactical trading approaches to consider.

As discussed in creating a trading plan, before you enter a trade you must know your stop loss point. This is where you will exit the trade in the event that the stock moves against you. The loss that you expect to incur if you exit at your stop loss point is your “risk”. As discussed in money management, the position size is based on this risk calculation.

We have established a range of prices for a particular stock and have drawn the 2 lines on our chart. Of course you can use any good intraday chart, I find the IG Market charts the easiest to use.

Note: For the purpose of trading, I prefer to use a 5 minute chart.

Let us have a look at two practical trading approaches using the BI.

1. Buy the initial breakout 2. Buy the second breakout after a retracement.

What is a breakout? I define as a breakout when the whole 5 minute candle is above the upper line of the range.

First Approach: Buy initial breakout

Entering the market at this stage is the most aggressive approach because it does not allow for any form of confirmation that the stock’s break above the resistance level will continue. Perhaps this strategy should be reserved for the most promising stocks. However it has the advantage of providing, in many circumstances, the cheapest entry point.

Using this strategy, I would like to see the breakout accompanied with high volume, again on the 5 minute chart. The stop loss should be set at the lower line of the range, as drawn in after 30 minutes. I find it best to use an automatic stop loss, as this eliminates all emotions.

However many times you will find that using the 30-minute lower line will often define risk values which are too high. You may have a range of say one dollar, too high to get a decent risk/reward ratio. I this case I suggest you use a stop based on levels the market has defined for you, say a Moving Average level or a support level. If you can not find a stop level to give u a good enough risk/reward probability, it may be better to miss the trade and look for a better opportunity.

So to summarize the first approach: Buy at initial breakout Watch for volume Set your stop loss Pass the trade if the risk/reward ratio is not good enough.

Second Approach: Buy the second breakout after a retracement

This tactic may suit the more conservative trader. Here you have the opportunity to evaluate how well the stock broke out. You can see how the stock trades above the BI. When using this approach you are looking for the market to create a new breakout after a retracement. As soon as the market demonstrates that a new breakout occurs, you can buy the stock with a stop below that retracement level.

The advantage of waiting for confirmation and a retracement is that you have more information before you enter the trade. You will not get stopped out of a stock that fails immediately after it breaks out. The disadvantage is that not all breakouts retrace. You may of course miss the best opportunity that a particular stock has to offer that day.

There will be a lot of opportunities everyday. Be patient, and get in at the right time as determined by your risk. Don’t take trades late because you feel as though you are going to miss out.

Many times you will find that the stock retraces or moves along sideways until later in the day, then suddenly breaks out again and gives you a good trading opportunity, maybe during an afternoon rally.

To summarize the second approach: Wait for initial breakout Wait for retracement Buy at second breakout Be patient, often the second breakout happens later in the day.

If you have any questions so far, please do not hesitate to email me. Email: ejk@tradingaustralianshares.com

Now we shall expand on this subject by looking at 1. selecting stocks to buy 2. refining the entry points 3. how to set stop losses

Ok, let us explore how to select stocks.

I suggest you create a watch list with all the stocks you may be interested in. You can explore many avenues to find interesting stocks.

Most CFD platforms will show you the most traded stocks for the day. It is always good to select stocks with high turnover. IG Markets has a daily listing of top movers, showing last price, % change and volume. This is a very informative source. If you open an account with IG Markets through my web site, I offer you 1 month free mentoring service to help you to get used to the platform and refine your trading skills.

You should also look out for recent news items. Recently I managed some good trades with Asciano, after reading a series of news about the company.

Select stocks with high volatility as these will give you the best chance to make a profit in day trading, but you must have a good stop loss. We discuss stop loss a little later. How do you define high volatility? Simply divide the daily average Trading Range (ATR) by the share price to get a percentage. The higher the percentage, the more volatility.

For example BHP s/p 26.4, ATR 2.02, volatility 7.65%. AIO s/p 1.55, ATR .371, volatility 23.94%. A huge volatility, good chance to make profit, but dangerous without a good stop loss.

I made myself an excel table, where I can assess volatility quickly.

We should also look for a bullish signal. I always prefer stocks which trade at the same or slightly above the prior day’s close. The prior day’s high is often a potential area of resistance, so when the stock trades above this high it is a bullish signal.

To summarize selection of stocks: o Create a good watch list and check every day. o Scan news to find stocks in the news. o Use the listing of top movers or similar to check every day what is moving quickly. o Look for stocks which are above the prior day’s high. This is a bullish signal.

We said to buy the initial breakout or buy the second breakout after a retracement. When do we enter the trade?

Volume is one of the most important indicators to look for. A breakout with not much volume does not tell us much. If you wish to buy at the initial breakout, look for high volume to accompany this breakout. I also think it is a good idea to wait until a full 5 minute candle has settled above the top breakout line.

If the volume is not there, I rather wait for a retracement and buy on the second breakout.

Can we buy before the share price reaches the breakout point? In many instances we can, but ONLY if the volume increases. Sometimes you will have a high opening price, followed by a quick retracement. This will sometimes be followed by a quick upsurge with high volume. This can be a buy signal, but once again, we must be sure that the volume is strong.

As with any pattern analysis, you will not always find that all of the criteria are met. You must be able to identify quality trading opportunities based on your criteria and use the correct trading tactic to exploit the opportunity. For example, if a stock shows a bullish picture, has relative high volume and has good volatility, then it may be a candidate for a more aggressive strategy of buying the initial breakout.

If the stock does not show good volume or is below the prior day’s closing price, then you should be more cautious and wait for a second breakout.

Avoid stocks that don’t show an easily identifiable trading opportunity. There will always be other opportunities.

Setting a Stop Loss

Setting a stop loss is a MUST. Before you enter a trade you should know your stop loss point. This is the price at which you will exit the trade in the event that the stock moves against you before you are able to take your profits. The loss that you expect to incur if you exit at your stop loss point is your risk. The risk will define your position size.

The low of the BI range is the most logical area of resistance, therefore the point to set your stop loss. However I often find that this gives me too big a distance and my risk reward ratio is just not there. There are a few ways to raise your stop loss point and therefore reduce the risk and find trades with a better risk reward ratio.

I have on my charts 2 Exponential Moving Average (EMA) lines, one is 15 periods, and the other one is 7 periods. Remember, I use the 5 minute chart for my trading. The 15 EMA line is quite good to use, unless the share price really surges quickly. In that case I would use the 7 EMA. I always use a trailing stop loss to lock in profits, trailing it up every 5 minutes, of course never going backward.

Which method you use to set your stop loss will always depend on your risk tolerance.

Very often if my trade shows good profit after a steep rise, I exit once I see the chart flattening out. This helps me to exit with a decent profit, however many times I found that the share price retraces slightly, and then moves higher.

To summarize stop loss techniques: o The low of the BI range o The 15 EMA o The 7 EMA o Exit when the chart flattens out, if you are in good profit.

Remember, trading is 70 percent science and 30 percent art. You must use experience and intuition at all times. Most of all, you must be able to cope with some small losses.

Experiment with the Bias Indicator, you will find it profitable.

If you wish to subscribe to my fortnightly newsletter, please email me with the subject heading “newsletter”.

It is of benefit to look for a good mentor to help you to keep on the path of learning. If interested, look on my web site where you can find a good (I hope) and affordable mentoring program. I may well be of help to you.

Just email me on ejk@tradingaustralianshares.com with your details. Don’t miss this opportunity.

Happy Trading,

Eric

A Psychological Profile Of Jimi Hendrix

Jimi Hendrix

Biographical Overview

If ever there was a guitar player who redefined this instrument for anyone who has ever played it before or since, it would be Jimi Hendrix. Jimi’s exceptionally creative, powerful, psychedelic licks helped him reach a musical standard that has never been duplicated, and in his four short years as a recording star he established himself as a musical legend without equal. His performances at the Monterrey Pop Festival which established him as a star, and later at Woodstock were some of the most awe-inspiring in the history of live music, and history will remember Jimi Hendrix as one of the most influential albeit enigmatic and mysterious musicians who ever graced the stage.

Jimi Hendrix was born John Allen Hendrix on November 29, 1942 to James (Al) Hendrix and Lucille Jeter in Seattle, Washington. Jimmy’s father Al, who would be his primary parental force throughout Jimi’s life, was in the Army when Jimi was born. Fearing that Al would go AWOL to go see his newborn son, the army placed Al in the stockade on “general principle” where he stayed for over a month until the army saw fit to release him.

Back in Seattle Jimi’s mother Lucille quickly grew tired of being a single parent and virtually abandoned Jimi during his first few years of life. Jimi, then known as Johnny, first lived with Lucille’s family, but was then placed with a woman named Mrs. Walls who took Johnny in and cared for him.

Al was finally released from the Army in 1945 when Jimi was three years old. Upon arriving back in the United States, Al regained custody of Johnny and promptly named him James after himself. Originally Jimi was known as “Buster” by his family, but at the age of 6 everyone began calling young James “Jimi” which would stick with him for the rest of his short life. Between the ages of 3 and 6 Al raised Jimi with the assistance of Lucille’s Sister Dolores, and Jimi became very close to her children who were being raised in the same home.

When Jimi was 6, his mother briefly came back into Jimi’s life when Al and Lucille attempted a reconciliation. Because there was little work in Seattle at the time, Al joined the Merchant Marines, and while he was away Lucille returned to her old carefree lifestyle, and was kicked out of the housing the Hendrix’s were residing in for having inappropriate male visitors. Upon his return from the Merchant Marines, Al and the family reunited, and Lucille eventually had another son Leon in 1948, who had Asian features and was clearly not Al Hendrix’s son. Lucille eventually had another son Joey by still a different father, and Al eventually divorced Lucille in 1950 as a result of her lack of stability.

Over the next few years Al raised Jimi and Leon with the help of his relatives, and Jimi briefly had another maternal figure “Edna” enter his life, who he grew close to but who was eventually forced to leave the Hendrix home to make room for other relatives. Lucille popped in and out of Jimi’s life during his formative years, and would make extravagant promises to Jimi that she would not follow through on. On February 2, 1958, following many years of hard drinking and frivolity, Lucille passed away at the age of 32 which deeply saddened Jimi.

In his teen years Al Hendrix bought Jimi his first electric guitar which Jimi became so attached to that he slept with it on a nightly basis. Jimi was eventually recruited by a man named James Thomas, and Jimi then became a member of James Thomas and the Tomcats. During this same time frame, Jimi, who had grown disinterested in school, dropped out of Garfield High, and also got in trouble for being in a stolen car. Jimi eventually joined the Army during this period, and decided he wanted to be a paratrooper in the Screaming Eagles like his father before him.

Jimi met Billy Cox while in the Army and the two of them had a great deal in common including musical tastes. While in the army they begin to play a little together, and they formed a friendship and partnership that would later be rekindled when Jimi formed the band Band Of Gypsies.

Following his stint in the Army, Jimi moved down south and began playing the “Chitlin” circuit where he used the stage names “Maurice James” and “Jimmie James” and had some success as a guitar player. Jimi would even play backup on a Supremes record, and in 1964 he played with the Isley Brothers who were also very popular at the time. It was during this period when Jimi met Little Richard, who was a bit of a narcissist, and felt that Jimi’s guitar playing upstaged him and took the focus off him which he felt was a necessary component of the act.

Jimi eventually split with Little Richard and moved to New York City where he at first had little success. After spending some time in Harlem, Jimi settled into the Greenwich Village neighborhood, where he formed a new band called Jimmy James and the Blue Flames. Jimi’s unique improvisational style alienated a number of his fans, while others thought they were witnessing the birth of a genius. One of these people was Chas Chandler, who formerly played base for a band called the Animals who knew when he saw Jimi that he had discovered an amazing new talent. Chas convinced Jimi that he would have more success in England than in the United States, and in 1966 Jimi packed his bags and left the US to live in London.

While in London Jimi met Mitch Mitchell and Noel Redding, and the three of them formed the band The Jimi Hendrix Experience and begin touring around England. Jimi dazzled the English crowd, who were alternately shocked and amazed by Jimi, and he was described in the English papers as “The Wild Man of Borneo” which was a kind of racial slur against Jimi’s heritage. The group was very successful, and their first album Are You Experienced produced the songs Hey Joe and Purple Haze which were both big hits on the English rock charts.

Jimi’s breakthrough performance came upon his return to the Unites States at the Monterrey Pop Festival where his use of distortion and feedback on the guitar helped him create a sound previously unheard by American audiences. With the crowd already in a frenzy over his performance, Jimi set his guitar on fire at the end of his set, which further electrified the crowd and created a buzz about Jimi Hendrix that would propel him to the top of the music world.

One important ally Jimi made during this time was Brian Jones from the Rolling Stones, who introduced Jimi at Monterrey and was one of Jim’s first important fans in the world of music. Following his performance at Monterrey, Brian introduced to Jimi to a lot of important people in California, which culminated in The Jimi Hendrix Experience being signed to go on tour with the Monkees who were one of the top drawing bands in the world at this time.

Jimi’s wild style and sexually explicit actions on stage were not well suited to the Monkees crowd, and soon this tour dissolved and The Jimi Hendrix Experience began touring on their own. Over the next two years the band became hugely successful, and in addition to Hey Joe and Purple Haze, produced songs such as Castles Made of Sand, and Bob Dylan’s All Along the Watchtower, which were all big hits for the band. The band eventually produced three hit albums, Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, and Electric Ladyland which all were huge successes. The band was not without its difficulties however, as Jimi and Noel Redding had difficulties agreeing on several issues related to the band, and in the summer of 1969 the band broke up despite the fact that they were at the peak of their commercial success.

Some speculated that Jimi broke up The Jimi Hendrix Experience because both of his bandmates were white, and that he was receiving pressure from the Black Panthers to make a statement about Black solidarity. Although Jimi did have an association with the Panthers in the 1960’s, he used the standard “creative differences” approach to explain the band’s breakup. But in any case it was apparent that he was hurt by all of the negative press he received following this incident.

Following the breakup of The Jimi Hendrix Experience Jimi began heavily using drugs, and a major turning point came in his life when he was arrested on May 3, 1969 at the Toronto airport for possession of Heroin and Marijuana. Jimi adamantly claimed the drugs were not his, but was rightfully disturbed at the prospect of facing seven years in prison, and thought a great deal about his legacy following his arrest. Jimi was eventually cleared of these charges, but still faced a great deal of inner turmoil as a result of this experience.

In the summer of that year, Jimi put together a group of musicians to play with him at Woodstock, and his performance there was one that helped cement his legend as one of the truly inspired live performers in the history of music. His Star-Spangled Banner on guitar was a huge hit with the fans, and would later become one of the featured scenes in the Woodstock film recordings that were produced at the festival. Later that year Jimi would also play at England’s answer to Woodstock, called The Isle of White Festival, where he also dazzled and amazed his English fans, many of who had been with him from the beginning.

At the end of his life, Jimi reunited with his old army buddy Billy Cox, and they formed the Band of Gypsies, which would be Jimi’s final group. This group had some success, but Jimi was beginning to become fatigued from years of working almost constantly, his continuing drug use, and the anxiety he felt arising from battles with his management, and earnings in the millions that he could not account for.

In September of that year, as the group was touring Europe, Jimi Hendrix was found dead on his hotel room floor as a result of an overdose of sleeping pills that caused him to choke on his own vomit. Jimi’s death was highly controversial however, as some claim he was mishandled by paramedics which caused him to eventually suffocate on the way to the hospital. Jimi’s death has been thoroughly investigated and researched, and despite all of the claims, a coroner’s report confirms that Jimi had been dead for some time when he was eventually found on the morning of September 18th.

The legacy of Jimi Hendrix endures, and many still consider him to be the most unique guitar player that ever lived. His estate has made millions of dollars following his death, most of which was originally hidden from his father by unscrupulous managers of Jimi’s affairs. Al Hendrix and his family eventually won back Jimi’s legacy with the help of Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and Allen would eventually go on to build a Jimi Hendrix museum called the Experience Music project, which is a major tourist attraction in Seattle Washington.

Analysis

Gender Role Preparation perceived through Gender Guiding Lines and Role Models

Though his interactions with his father, Jimi learned the values of hard work and perseverance that would guide him throughout his life and career. Although Jimi was occasionally portrayed as a spaced-out wild man under the influence of LSD, he was in fact an extremely hard worker who produced an amazing amount of material in his short career.

Jimi’s father also instilled in Jimi the value of perseverance. Through all of his struggles with his wife Lucille, job difficulties, prejudice, etc, Al Hendrix continued to soldier on and raise his boy Jimi, and this lesson was not lost on his young son. This value of perseverance was so strong in Jimi that he practiced his guitar so often and so much that he eventually became a virtuoso. With no ability to read music and no real training, Jimi still managed to teach himself to play the guitar with his right hand despite the fact that he was born left-handed. All of these obstacles must have made the guitar very difficult for Jimi to learn, but through watching his father Jimi learned a man never gives up, and he therefore continued to work tirelessly at learning to play his guitar.

Jimi’s female gender guiding line was much more complex. Although Jimi loved his mother, she disappeared often in his life, and Jimi was well aware of her infidelities towards his father. Later in his life Jimi’s interactions with women appeared to be unstable, and his fear of commitment with women may very well have arisen from watching his mother’s irresponsible behavior.

Jimi’s mistrust of women is interesting to consider with regard to one of the women he was the closest to named Devon Wilson. Devon was a former prostitute, heavy drug user, and party girl who had also been romantically linked to Mick Jagger during the late 1960’s. Devon lived with Jimi at his New Your apartment, handled many of Jimi’s affairs, and was even the subject of one of Jimi’s songs called Dolly Dagger. Like Jimi’s mother Lucille, Devon would often disappear for days at a time and then come back when she was done with her extended binge. The fact that, despite Jimi’s access to so many women, he trusted a clearly irresponsible woman like Devon Wilson to get closest to him, seems to suggest that he may have chosen her because her behavior was so much like his mother’s growing up.

Interpersonal Style perceived through Experience of Family Atmosphere

On the subject of Jimi’s mother, she and Al fought often while Jimi was growing up, and the Hendrix household was often filled with storm and strife when Lucille was around. Watching his mother and father fight so often appeared to affect Jimi’s own relationships with women, as he was on several occasions verbally and even physically violent with women during periods of confrontation.

Jimi also lived in a number of different homes and places growing up, and in this capacity learned not to get too close to people as they may abandon you at any time. One poignant story Jimi himself related involved meeting his father for the first time at the age of three and taking the train from Berkeley to Seattle. Jimi recalled how much he wanted to return to the only “family” he had ever really known, and how odd it was to be taken on a train by some strange man he had never met. This sense of instability was reinforced often throughout Jimi’s life, as a number of people would be significant in his life for a couple of years and then simply disappear, and this appears to have affected Jimi’s ability to trust and get close to people.

Because Jimi was unable to achieve a sense of stability, he developed a shy and introverted personality that caused him a great deal of loneliness. Jimi dealt with painful feelings through artistic expression, and the ultimate capacity of his talent may have been a reflection of the intensity of his painful feelings.

Personal Code of Conduct Perceived through Acceptance / Rejection of Family Values

The family values in the Hendrix household involved obedience to authority and a healthy respect for one’s elders, and although Jimi had respect for his father, he came to distrust authority in his own life. There are many different versions of Jimi’s life with Al Hendrix, many of which paint a picture of a very unhappy home life where Al constantly reminded his children of the sacrifices he had to make for his children. In Al’s own autobiography My Son Jimmy (1999) he talked about how Jimi used to escape responsibility for his actions by blaming misdeeds on an imaginary friend named “Sessy” who Jimmy would evoke when he felt he had disappointed Al. It certainly must have been difficult for Al to raise Jimi by himself, and given the economic climate in Seattle at that time, there’s no doubt that Al must have had to make some great sacrifices for Jimi. Perhaps Jimi’s creation of an imaginary friend was a psychological defense against Al’s disappointment, which seemed to be yet another factor in Jimi’s unhappy childhood.

Another family value that Jimi seemed to reject concerned the family’s views on religion. Although Jimi was raised by a church-going family who believed in worship, Jimi came to believe that his music was a form of great spiritual expression. Jimi rejected the stifling versions of Christianity he learned as a young man, and instead felt music was the way he could connect to the mystical and spiritual side of life.

Music also offered an escape for Jimi from his problems, and was certainly a positive adaptation for him to an unhappy childhood. Jimi often described how music would compose itself in his head, and his unparalleled talent in music may have been a result of this intense desire to escape his emotionally painful cognitions.

Perspective on the World perceived through Experience of Psychological Birth Order

As the first born son in the Hendrix household and the only son sired by his father Al, Jimi developed a sense that he was particularly special when he was a young man. Although Jimi’s younger brother Leon spent a great deal of time with Jimi and his father growing up, he was also often shipped to another family during difficult times. The fact that Jimi was always the one that remained with his father must have made him feel like the “chosen” one much of the time, and he appeared to develop a sense that he was something special. This is not an uncommon reaction from a first born child, as they often receive more attention than their siblings do when they are born, as they become literally the center of their parent’s universe.

For Jimi this situation did not unfold exactly like this, as his first three years were filled with a great deal of moving around that must have confused and frightened him at such a fragile age. The two women that adopted Jimi in these years both referred to his “specialness” however, so one can assume this was something he felt that was further reinforced when Al eventually came and got him following his release from the Army.

Jimi’s biographers (Hendrix 1999) discuss how it was clear to Jimi that his younger brother Leon had a different father than him, and although Al certainly loved and cared for Leon, he must have felt some resentment from having to raise another man’s child. Jimi therefore was the “favorite” growing up, and developed a sense of his own uniqueness that instilled in him a great deal of confidence in his abilities. This confidence was especially relevant in the early stages of Jimi’s career, where audiences often disliked and were unable to understand his unique style of music. Although many artists would have become discouraged in this situation, Jimi was convinced of his own talent, and much of this resolve appears to have its roots in Jimi’s early childhood experiences.

Self Assessment Perceived through Genetic Possibilities

Jimi Hendrix came from a talented family with a long history of performing in front of groups. Jimi’s grandmother was an entertainer who traveled and worked as a singer and performer before her son Al was born, and even prior to this generation music was a strong part of the Hendrix tradition. Jimi’s father Al and his uncle Leon both showed musical talent at a very young age, and both of them could play the piano, sing, and also dance at a young age, and often did so growing up. Jimi therefore appeared to have a predisposition to music that was inherited from the talented Hendrix family.

Jimi developed a stutter at a young age however, and was not confident as a singer and a dancer like the rest of his family. Therefore when Jimi did find a musical instrument to play, it appears that he compensated for his stutter by practicing a great deal on the guitar in an attempt to belong with his otherwise musical family.

Jimi also felt a strong identification with his family’s Cherokee heritage. The extent of Jimi’s Indian blood has been misrepresented often in several biographies that mention the subject. Jimi’s father Al (Hendrix 1999) eventually clarified that Jimi’s great grandmother was a full-blooded Cherokee, but Jimi did feel a strong identification with this portion of his ancestry. Al Hendrix explained that when Jimi and the other children played games like Cowboys and Indians when Jimi was a kid, Jimi always wanted to be the Indian as it helped link him with a part of his Heritage. Jimi created a great deal of art as a child that depicted the Indians conquering the cavalry, and he even discussed later as an adult how he felt a sense of power that came from his Indian blood.

In considering this idea it is fascinating to examine the lyrics from one of Jimi’s big hits, Castles Made of Sand-

“A little Indian brave who before he was ten, played war games in The woods with his Indian friends, and he built a dream that when he Grew up, he would be a fearless warrior Indian Chief. Many moons passed and more the dream grew strong, until tomorrow He would sing his first war song,

And fight his first battle, but something went wrong,

Surprise attack killed him in his sleep that night”

Reading the lyrics to this song which Jimi wrote, one can’t help but wonder how much it reflected both Jimi’s dreams as well as his disappointments. In many ways this song demonstrated the conditions of Jimi’s life, as, despite having “conquered” the music world, he still was very anxious about his life circumstances as a result of his arrest and also the large amounts of money he was missing. Much like the little Indian in the story, Jimi had been blindsided by events in his life, and this song seems to reveal the depths of his unhappiness.

Openings for Advancement perceived through Environmental Opportunities

One important adaptation Jimi made as a young man concerned the first guitar he ever received which Al purchased for Jimi for the price of 5 dollars. Jimi, who was born left-handed but learned to do most things right-handed, changed the strings around on this right-handed guitar and instead played it left-handed which was an adaptation that would eventually have a direct impact on his future musical genius. Jimi learned that by manipulating the instrument like this he could get different sounds out of it, and later as an adult he played his guitars both upside down and backwards which helped him carve out his own unique sound that no one else was readily able to replicate. Because Jimi made this adaptation at such a young age and practiced so excessively, his technique became something that was uniquely his.

Another early experience that shaped the young Jimi Hendrix was seeing an Elvis Presley concert while he was growing up in Seattle. Jimi became fascinated by Elvis’s showmanship, and much of his early artwork produced flattering pictures of the King. Although Jimi was somewhat shy throughout his life, on stage he truly had no inhibitions, and at least some of this he learned from watching Elvis when he was a young man. The impact of seeing Elvis live seemed to awaken in Jimi a sense of the heights a person could reach through playing music, and this rare opportunity was for Jimi a tipping point that helped give birth to his eventual persona as a stage performer.

Range of Social Interest perceived through Other Particularities

One barometer of a person’s mental health can be observed by examining their relationships and interest in the welfare of other human beings. Jimi Hendrix, who appeared to have abandonment issues related to his childhood, and who had also been betrayed by several business associates, therefore seemed to have trouble developing a profound sense of social interest. Although Jimi was often approached about social causes, he seemed to be most comfortable letting his music do his talking for him, and didn’t feel as comfortable as an advocate and leader to promote social change as many of his 60’s counterparts.

In this capacity it is interesting to consider Jimi’s relationship with the Black Panthers as well as the larger issue of racism in the life of Jimi Hendrix. Growing up Jimi watched his father experience a great deal of racism related to finding jobs, etc. and this must have affected the young Jimi a great deal, as a lot of his early artwork depicts struggles for equality and justice. Jimi also experienced racism following his release from the Army when he went to play the “Chitlin” circuit in the Southern United States, where there was clearly different treatment for white and black musicians.

Jimi was eventually discovered a white man Chas Chandler, and found fame and acceptance with two white musicians who were of course Noel Redding and Mitch Mitchell. Although Jimi found success in the UK with these two men, he was still mocked by the British papers as “the wild man of Borneo” and with other racial epitaphs that appeared to alternatively mock and praise Jimi. Jimi eventually became known for playing “white” music by some of the more extremist black national groups in the United States, and many speculate it was the Black Panthers who pushed Jimi into eventually disbanding the Jimi Hendrix experience to form an all-Black band. Although there are widely varying accounts as to Jimi’s relationship with the Panthers, it seems clear that Jimi was heavily conflicted about the issue of race.

In terms of social interest, Jimi’s use of escapism through music is also interesting to examine. Music appeared to be the one thing that let him escape painful thoughts and feelings, and it was only when he had to quit playing and deal with other human beings when he seemed to be unhappy. People certainly took terrible advantage of Jimi throughout his life, as he died with only 21,000 thousand dollars in his banking account as a result of people pilfering millions from him over the course of his career. Jimi’s lack of social interest therefore appeared to be based on very real experiences with people in the world, as his early home life and professional career were filled with repeated abandonment, disappointments, and betrayals from those that he thought he could depend on.

Jimi also had a great deal of narcissism, much of which contributed to the development of his music, which was also a defining characteristic of his personality. Many people who had experienced the kind of rejection Jimi had at the beginning of his career would have simply returned to playing mainstream music, but Jimi truly believed that his music was something special despite the negative reinforcement he had received from the New York crowds. A narcissist will often believe his or her own way is not only special and unique, but also better than the way anyone else is doing it, and this was very much demonstrated by Jimi’s creation of his own music.

Although narcissism is often malignant, many exceptionally talented people demonstrate high levels of this trait in their dealings with others, which was certainly true in the case of Jimi Hendrix. When someone disagrees with or challenges someone who is malignantly narcissistic, their reaction may be extreme irritation, and Jimi’s interpersonal relationships seemed to represent this idea. His habitually abusive behavior towards women showed Jimi had a very low tolerance for frustration, and when others, and particularly women disagreed with him, his response to this frustration was very often physical violence.

Jimi’s violence towards women may have also arisen in part from his interactions with his mother Lucille, as Jimi never seemed to develop a healthy respect for women throughout his life. His lack of a consistent feminine presence and maternal gender guiding line growing up must have created some anger in Jimi, and hearing his father’s descriptions of his mother’s life may have also contributed to this dynamic.

Jimi’s life was therefore empty of the kind of social interest in others that many felt was a larger part of the idealism of the 1960’s. Although Jimi participated in some of the causes and issues of his times, his involvement was often at the recommendation of those around him. Jimi’s lack of trust in other people, which had its roots in childhood patterns, was reinforced often throughout his life, and Jimi overcompensated for his lack of interest in others by developing a truly awe-striking ability that allowed him to escape from the world. Although this talent was extraordinary, it seemed to be in part created through the sublimation of his personal pain, and this left Jimi without a path other than music in which to actively experience joy in his life. Jimi’s gift of music to the world was and is a lasting contribution that influenced thousands of musicians both before and after him, but was also in many ways a reaction to a troubled history, and this was the sadness and irony of this truly unique musician.

Aggressive Vs Defensive Stock Investing

Aggressive stock investing means taking greater risks. The risks can take numerous forms. You invest in highly volatile market when the fluctuations in prices defy all the techniques of analytical and fundamental research. There are rises and falls in prices of stocks which occur contrary to the investors’ expectations. There are daring and imaginative investors who manage to make money even in these uncertain circumstances.

Another form of aggressive marketing is that you invest in stocks which appear to be ‘gone cases’ according to popular calculations. But quite contrary to all the wise counsel, they show high growth and deliver rich dividends. Of course, they may also fall further down since they are already gone cases.

On the other hand, you invest in some stocks like Wal-Mart, fully aware that they are costly and their price may not rise in near future. Few people know that buyers of such high value stocks do not invest in them to make money through the rise in their prices, but rather these companies pay rich dividends to their investors year after year so that they become a source of their regular income and livelihood. The dividends paid by such blue chip companies almost nullify the high prices of their stocks which people pay to buy them.

There is no doubt that those who dive deeper into the ocean either come out with invaluable gems or just lose their lives.

But Aggressive investing is not everybody’s cup of tea.

Defensive approach

As a part of the defensive approach, some people recommend that the best investment option is government treasury bonds. They argue that since you buy a debt obligation of the United States, you can be sure that you are going to get paid. All that government needs to do is to raise taxes or sell off assets to pay its debts.

This, however, is not an approach of an entrepreneur who believes that you cannot make money without incurring certain amount of risk. A defensive approach, therefore, does not mean not taking any risk at all, but simply means taking affordable risks and deriving optimal returns at the same time. It must be understood that risks in stock trading are neither higher nor lower than in any other business.

An ordinary stock investor, especially the one who is a beginner should have a defensive approach and be careful while trading in stocks.

A slow, cautious and conservative approach may not yield high profits in the beginning. In fact the profits may appear to be negligible, almost discouraging at the initial stages, but they can turn out to be phenomenal over the time. You will appreciate their value when you retire. This approach exemplifies the truth that slow and steady wins the race.

So as a defensive stock investor, you should calculate how much money you can easily spare every month without cutting down your essential expenses. Consult your stock broker and also do your own research to find out which stocks you should invest. It is always advisable to invest in stocks that yield high dividends. If you can easily pull on with your existing resources of income, the best option is to go for dividend reinvestment plans.

Through time, stocks with dividends yield higher returns than long-term treasury yields. Not only are the dividends higher in stock investment, but they also get favorable tax treatment. Dividends from stock investments attract a maximum of 15% Federal tax rate while the income from treasury bonds, although exempt from state and local taxes, can come in as high as the 35% tax bracket. Moreover, you get the capital gains generated from an increasing stock price. [It is like having a cake and eating it too.] Don’t know if this analogy is necessary.

The high dividend yielding stocks protect you when the market goes down. As the stock prices fall, the dividend yield rises because the cash dividend can exceed the buying price of a share by a large percentage. It can be illustrated by an example: You buy a $100 stock of a company with a $2 dividend which is 2%. Suppose the price of the stock falls by 50%, the dividend yield would go up to 4 %.( this is arrived by dividing $2 by $50 and multiplying by 100.). What often happens is that the dividend paid by certain companies goes so high and attracts buyers in such large numbers that its stock price is driven high even during a fall in the market.

The Development of Sociology and Modernity

The development of sociology was born out of two revolutions: the French Revolution of 1789, and the Industrial revolution. Both of these events destroyed all previous social norms and created a new social organization: the modern industrial society. In particular, the French Revolution destroyed not only the political and social foundations of France, but almost every country in Europe and the North Americas. Ideas of liberty and equality were put into practice, setting the stage for a completely new social and political order. These changes also represented the victory for the downtrodden in France, and the beginnings of societies in other countries based on the individual and individualism. A new class of people, emboldened by what happened in France, appeared on the political stages of Europe and North America and were not afraid to fight for their rights as citizens and human beings.

The concept of modernity came about when classical theorists needed to understand the meaning and significance of the Twin Revolutions and the effects of industrialization, urbanization, and political democracy on rural societies. The term ‘modernity’ was coined to capture these changes in progress by contrasting the “modern” with the “traditional.” Modernity was meant to be more than a concept. Modernity referred to a world constructed anew through the active and conscious intervention of individuals. In modern societies, the world is experienced as a human construction, an experience that gives rise to a new sense of freedom and to a basic anxiety about the openness of the future.

Modernity consists of three elements: traditional, institutional, and cultural. Traditional modernity means that there is a historical consciousness, a sense of breaking with the past, and a post-traditional consciousness of what is going on in the world. Institutional modernity is concerned with capitalism, industrialism, urbanism, and the democratic nation-state. Cultural modernity entails new beliefs about science, economics, and education. It involves a criticism of religion and separation of religion from politics and education.

A new social science was created in the wake of these events and was given the name ‘sociology’ by Auguste Comte, a French philosopher and he is thought of as the founder of modern sociology. Sociology is not only about intellect, but is connected with developments in the social world and changes in society. One reason why sociology is different than the other social sciences is that it attempts to describe different sets of social forces that develop in a society at different times and places, with different actors and results. As societies change, it is the nature of these changes that sociologists attempt to explain, and it is the changes themselves that lead to different explanations of these changes.

For example, Marx’s political-economic theory is an explanation of nineteenth century capitalism as it developed in Britain. His theory could not have been developed fifty years earlier because the trends and forces that he described and explained were only beginning in the early part of the nineteenth century. Weber’s analysis of bureaucracy and rationalization could not have emerged much sooner than it did, because the bureaucratic structures and the forces of rationalization had not developed all that much before Weber’s time. And Durkheim’s analysis of the changing division of labor could take place only once some of the economic and social trends of modern, industrial societies became apparent. The same is true today: as society changes and becomes more modern, new sociological theories and approaches are developed in an attempt to understand and explain these changes.

Marx, Weber, and Durkheim had different views on modernity. For Marx, modernity is capitalism and he felt that the ideal of true democracy is one of the great lies of capitalism. He thought that the only ideas that came out of a capitalist society was alienation, class conflict, and revolution. He also thought that capitalism will be eventually destroyed by revolution. For him, history is a human construction and that history is made by those who have the political and material means to do so. Humans participate in their own oppression through false conscious, any belief, idea, or ideology that interferes with an exploited and oppressed person or group being able to perceive the objective nature and source of their oppression.

Weber construes modernity as rationalization, bureaucratization, and the “Iron Cage.” For him, the history of modernization was increased rationalization. There would be a search for the most efficient techniques and stresses that everything is reevaluated. Everything humans depend on would be controlled by large capitalist bureaucratic organizations.

Durkheim saw modernity as moral order, anomie and the decline of social solidarity. In his analysis of modernity, there is a breakdown of social values, the breaking down of traditional social order. Anomie is a transitional problem, lacking moral regulation. Increased egotism is also a problem. All three of these classic theorists had a very critical view of modern capitalism and society.

An Analysis of ‘Rhapsody on a Windy Night’ From TS Eliot’s Prufrock and Other Observations

T.S. Eliot is regarded as an extremely important modernist writer. He inaugurated a range of narrative and stylistic techniques which exercised a considerable influence over modernism in literature. This article explores the poem ‘Rhapsody on a Windy Night’, from Eliot’s Prufrock and Other Observations, concentrating primarily on the concept of time and how it figures in the poem.

Time is undeniably associated with notions of present and past, and it plays a significant role in ‘Rhapsody on a Windy Night’, hereafter in this article referred to as ‘Rhapsody’. The modernist interest in time could be argued to be partially determined by earlier scientific discoveries. The concept of time itself had been in the throes of change since the sixteenth century. However the plethora of scientific explorations and discoveries in the nineteenth century seemed to herald a new age in science. While Eliot was engaged in writing the Prufrock poems, advances in theoretical physics, such as Einstein’s formulation of the Special Theory of Relativity, were transforming the understanding of time as a physical measure. However, in regards to Eliot’s own interests in time, it was the French philosopher Henri Bergson who exerted the most immediate influence.

While he was still residing in America, a young Eliot made extensive visits to Europe where he attended lectures given by Bergson. The philosopher’s theories on time and his attempts at defining the nature of past, present, and future manifest themselves in several of the Prufrock poems, especially ‘Rhapsody’, which is usually regarded as reworking some of Bergson’s ideas; therefore an understanding of them is useful when evaluating Eliot’s own attitudes to the present. Most of Bergson is extremely difficult to comprehend so it is beneficial to attempt a summary of his ideas before analysing how they are represented in Eliot’s poetry. In his Creative Evolution (1907) and Matter and Memory (1896) – two works Eliot was familiar with while composing the Prufrock poems – Bergson set out to define the nature of time and consciousness as experienced by human beings. He arrived at an idea he called ‘le duree’, meaning ‘duration’, a metaphysical construct which considers evolution and consciousness to be underlain by a constant flow of moments that cannot be measured by clock time. In Creative Evolution, Bergson proposed the notion that an individual’s natural state is change, asserting that all feelings and ideas are undergoing constant change.

Bergson thought that an individual’s memory forms a large part of this process, with past memories constantly resurfacing in a person’s consciousness. It is this perpetual resurfacing of the past that plays a central role in ‘Rhapsody’, where, while wandering around a desolate environment, the protagonist experiences a variety of seemingly fragmented memories. In Matter and Memory Bergson endeavoured to evaluate the nature of consciousness and its inextricable association with time. This was accomplished by attempting to define the relationship between past, present and future. Bergson considered the true essence of time is its transitory nature. This presents a problem in identifying the exact point that could be considered ‘the present’. Bergson concedes that what we identify as the present is formed by sensations deriving from the past and actions directed towards the future, and it is this inherent duality that informs much of the content of ‘Rhapsody’.

The poem is located in an urban environment, a setting characteristic of much modernist poetry. As with the other Prufrock poems, a defining feature of ‘Rhapsody’ is Eliot’s perfection of a highly original and distinctly modern poetic voice. It is important to acknowledge that this poet persona is not intended to represent T.S. Eliot himself, but is instead a fictional construction that brings together the formal and thematic qualities of the poem. This particular poetic consciousness belongs to an alienated individual who recounts their experiences while wandering around a desolate city after midnight. The use of the word ‘rhapsody’ in the poem’s title is somewhat ironic, in that we normally associate this word with ‘enthusiasm’ or ‘extravagance’; the observations and recollections that the poet persona experiences appear more to do with degradation and futility, and the prevailing tone is generally bleak and depressing.

The poet persona in ‘Rhapsody’ is typified by a lack of control, predominantly illustrated by the seeming random appearance of memories. This pervasive sense of involuntariness acts in part as a poetic expression of Bergson’s theories. Bergson’s notion of the body acting as a conduit for a range of sensations deriving from a person’s past experience is evinced in the lines ‘The memory throws up high and dry / A crowd of twisted things’. In choosing to say ‘the memory’ instead of ‘my memory’, adds to the divided quality of the protagonist, as if he were composed of separated parts rather than being whole.

The reader gathers that the protagonist of ‘Rhapsody’ has little to no control over this incessant flow of resurfacing memories. Eliot illustrates this unpredictably of memory in several lines but perhaps most notably in the bizarre image of ‘a madman shakes a dead geranium’. The geraniums become a symbol for the involuntariness of the poet persona’s memory in the later lines ‘The reminiscence comes / Of sunless dry geraniums’.

The street lamps the poet persona encounters play a key role in the poem. They are personified – a device that contributes to the protagonist’s fragmented and dissociated nature – in the second stanza, with the lines ‘The street-lamp sputtered / The street-lamp muttered / The street-lamp said’. Eliot accomplishes this disjointed effect by having the poet persona’s perceptions depicted as observations from the street-lamps. For example, in the second stanza the protagonist is instructed by the street lamp to observe a woman, while in the fourth and fifth stanzas they are directed to look at a cat, and then the moon, respectively. These urban sightings are deliberately seedy and depressing: the woman is clearly a prostitute; the cat is described as slipping out its tongue to devour ‘a morsel of rancid butter’ – an act the reader assumes to be a subtle reflection on the protagonist’s own futile existence; while the moon is delineated in the most unflattering, anti-romantic hue: ‘A washed-out smallpox cracks her face’. These images and those from the protagonist’s memory are juxtaposed with the inexorable march of clock time, illustrated by the stark fact that most of the stanzas begin by informing the reader of the actual time.

The concept of time plays an important role in ‘Rhapsody on a Windy Night’. As this article has illustrated, the notion of the present is multifaceted, when Eliot’s interpretation of the theories of Henri Bergson is taken into account.

Matthew Arnold and Three Classes – The Barbarians, the Philistines and the Populace

Matthew Arnold is really a great fighter for prevailing real culture in the society of London. He finds the kingdom of materialism that is trying to strangle real culture. So, in this chapter, Arnold divides the society of England into three classes – The Aristocratic Class, the Middle Class and the Working Class. He finds Anarchy very common in these classes and analyses them with their virtues and defects. He designates the Aristocratic class of his time as the Barbains, the Middle class as the Philistines and the Working class as the Populace.

His scrutiny of three classes of his time proves him a good experienced critic. For Aristocratic class, he views that this class lacks adequate courage for resistance. He calls this class the Barbarians because they believe in their personal individualism, liberty and doing as one likes; they had great passion for field sports. Their manly exercise, their strength and their good looks are definitely found in the Aristocratic class of his time. Their politeness resembles the Chivalry Barbarians, and their external styles in manners, accomplishments and powers are inherited from the Barbarians.

The other class is the middle class or the Philistines, known by its mundane wisdom, expert of industry and found busy in industrialization and commerce. Their eternal inclination is to the progress and prosperity of the country by building cities, railroads and running the great wheels of industry. They have produced the greatest mercantile navy. So, they are the Empire builders. In this material progress, the working class is with them. All the keys of progress are in their hands.

The other class is the working class or the populace. This class is known raw and half-developed because of poverty and other related diseases. This class is mostly exploited by the Barbarians and Philistines. The author finds democratic arousing in this class because they are getting political consciousness and are coming out from their hiding places to assert an English man’s heaven- born privilege of doing as he likes, meeting where he likes, bawling what he likes, and breaking what he likes.

Despite such class system, Arnold finds a common basis of human nature in all. So, the spirit of sweetness and light can be founded. Even Arnold calls himself philistine and rises above his level of birth and social status in his pursuit of perfection, sweetness and light and culture. He further says that all three classes find happiness in what they like. For example, the Barbarians like honour and consideration, field sports and pleasure. The Philistines like fanaticism, business and money making and comfort and tea meeting, but the Populace class, hated by the both classes, likes shouting, hustling and smashing and beer. They all keep different activities by their social status. However, there are a few souls in these classes who hope for culture with a desire to know about their best or to see things as they are. They have desire to pursue reason and to make the will of God to prevail.

For the pursuit of perfection, it does not lie only on the genius or the talented persons, but also on all classes. Actually, the love or the pursuit of perfection is within the approach of the common people. He calls the man of culture as the true nurse of pursuing love and sweetness and light. He finds such persons in all three classes who have a general human spirit for the pursuit of perfection. He says that the right source of authority is the best self or the right reason to be achieved by culture.

The Best Self or the Right Reason & the Ordinary Self:

Here he discusses the best self or the right reason and the ordinary self that can be felt in the pursuit of perfection only. In this regard, he talks about the bathos, surrounded by nature itself in the soul of man, is presented in literary judgment of some critics of literature and in some religious organizations of America. He further says that the idea of high best self is very hard for the pursuit of perfection in literature, religion and even in politics. The political system, prevalent in his time, was of the Barbarians. The leaders and the statesmen sang the praises of the Barbarians for winning the favour of the Aristocrats. Tennyson celebrates in his poems the glory of the great broad-shouldered genial Englishmen with his sense of duty and reverence for the laws. Arnold asserts that Tennyson is singing the praise of the philistines because this middle class is the backbone of the country in progress. The politicians sing the praise of the populace for carrying their favours. Indeed, they play with their feelings, having showed the brightest powers of sympathy and the readiest power of actions. All these praises are mere clap-trap and trick to gain applause. It is the taste of bathos surrounded by nature itself in the soul of man and comes into ordinary self. The ordinary self enforces the readers to misguide the nation. It is more admirable, but its benefits are entertained by the representatives and ruling men.

Arnold inclines to right reason as a paramount authority which has the appeal to best self. All the classes must follow it, otherwise anarchy will be prevailed, and they will do what they like to do. In education, he wants to prevail best self because it was at jeopardy. He is of the opinion that when one man’s particular sort of taste for the bathos shall tyrannize over the other man’s, in result, the right reason or the best self must fail to rule in education. He insists on right reason that is the authority in the matter of education. The state of affairs in education arises for the lack of intellectual flexibilities in educationists who are neglecting the best self or right reason and are trying to appeal to the genial taste for the bathos; and tearing it to its natural operation and its infinite variety of experiments.

Arnold wants to bring reform in education by shifting the management of public schools from their old board of trustees to the state. Like politics, in education the danger lies in unchecked and unguided individual action. All the actions must be checked by the real reason or the best self of the individual. It is the opinion of some people that the state may not interfere into affairs of education. The liberal party men believe in liberty, the individual liberty of doing as one likes and assert that interference of the state in education is a violation of personal liberty. Arnold says that such ideal personal liberty has still indefinite distance.

The mission of Arnold’s culture is that each individual must act for himself and must be perfect himself. The chosen people or classes must dedicate themselves to the pursuit of perfection, and he seems to be agreed with Humboldth, the German Philosopher, in case of the pursuit of perfection. The culture will make them perfect on their own foundation. So, it is essential that man must try to seek human perfection by instituting his best self or real reason; culture, in the end, would find its public reason.

Analysis of Betty Friedan’s The Problem That Has No Name

In an excerpt from her book, “The Feminine Mystique”, Betty Friedan defines women’s unhappiness during the Fifties as ”the problem that has no name.” She identifies “the problem that has no name” as upper-middle classed suburban women experiencing dissatisfaction with their lives and an inarticulated longing for something else beside their housewifely duties. She pins the blame on a media perpetuated idealized image of femininity, a social construction that tells women that their role in life is catch a man, keep a man, have children and put the needs of one’s husband and children first.

According to Friedan, women have been encouraged to confine themselves to a very narrow definition of “true” womanhood, forsaking education and career aspirations in the process by experts who wrote books, columns and books that told women during that era that their greatest role on the planet was to be wives and mothers. The role of a “real” woman was to have no interest in politics, higher education and careers and women were taught by these experts to pity women who had the nerve to want a life beyond the cult of true womanhood.

If women expressed dissatisfaction with their charmed lives, the experts blamed their feelings on the higher education they received before becoming a housewife. During the fifties, little girls as young as ten years were being marketed by underwear advertisers selling brassieres with false bottoms to aide them in catching boyfriends and American girls began getting married in high school. America’s birthrate during this time skyrocketed and college educated women made careers out of having children. The image of the beautiful, bountiful Suburban housewife was accepted as the norm and women drove themselves crazy, sometimes literally to achieve this goal.

Friedan ultimately concluded that “the problem that has no name” is not a loss of femininity, too much education, or the demands of domesticity but a stirring of rebellion of millions of women who were fed up with pretending that they were happy with their lives and that solving this problem would be the key to the future of American culture.