The Rise and Fall of Napster

With one single program written in 1999, an 18-year old Northeastern University computer science student named Shawn Fanning would unwittingly forever transform how people use the internet. The name of his program was Napster. Dubbed after his teenage nickname because of his nappy hair, Napster was a free downloadable program that could transform individual computers into servers that shared MP3 music files across the internet. Rather than a central server where all music files were stored, Napster instead worked as a medium. Users could log in to Napster, search for an artist or song title, and then proceed to download directly from another logged-in user’s hard drive. In a little more than a year after its initial launch, Napster soon became one of the most notorious and wildly popular sites in internet history. At its peak, Napster was touting a grand total of some 60 million users worldwide (Collins, 2002). Little did Fanning realize that his brainchild would soon become as ubiquitous on the internet as email and instant messaging. Nor little did Fanning realize the ensuing legal tempest that his creation would eventually create. Ultimately what began as a simple program written for his friends to share music soon caught the attention of not only young people worldwide, but also the ire of the recording industry.

The story of Napster begins just south of Boston in the city of Brockton, Massachusetts. A 17-year old Colleen Fanning was a high school senior there in 1980. One night, her older brother threw a party celebrating his high school graduation and hired a local band called “MacBeth” to play at the party. It was a resounding success, with some 3,000 people mobbing the house. Colleen’s younger brother John went around with a hat raising money to pay for the band and netting a couple of grand by the end of the night, his first entrepreneurial experience. That same night, say the Fannings, Colleen hooked up with one of the musicians and wound up pregnant. With her dad’s support, Colleen kept her baby, and named him Shawn. However, Shawn’s biological father who happened to be the son of one of the richest families in Massachusetts bailed out. Colleen eventually ended up marrying an ex-Marine who drove a delivery truck for a local bakery. His name was Raymond Verrier. The couple had four more kids, and Colleen took care of them all while her husband worked. “Money was always a pretty big issue,” Shawn said in a 2000 Business Week article. He added, “There was a lot of tension around that” (Ante, 2000).

Shawn grew up near the public housing projects in Brockton. At the time, Verrier could see her already-shy son was withdrawing from the inner-city chaos constantly surrounding him, “He went inside himself real deep and said, ‘I want to get out of this.’ Even though it meant losing him a little bit, it’s what I wanted for him,” said Verrier, employed then as a nurse’s aide. As Shawn grew older, Verrier turned to her business-minded brother, John, to help guide her son. As an incentive to learn, for each “A” he brought home from school his uncle John Fanning gave him money. He also bought his nephew an Apple Macintosh computer that Verrier could never have had the money for (Menn, 2003). Life for Shawn at the Fanning household however was steadily worsening. The relationship between his parents finally culminated when his mother and stepfather had a split. For a year Shawn and his siblings were forced to live in a foster home (Ante, 2000). Nevertheless, Shawn’s entrepreneurial uncle John Fanning was always there to offer support to his young nephew. Shawn worked summers as an intern in the division at his uncle John’s internet company, NetGames, in the nearby town of Hull. There, Shawn became quite deft at programming from fellow interns who were studying computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. Yet in spite of John taking a vested interest in his nephew, Shawn was reluctant to absorb his uncle’s attentive work ethic. Shawn had difficulty completing assignments and instead would often focus on playing video games. “I was just getting into programming, so I spent a lot of my time just fiddling with projects and hanging out,” Shawn said (Ante, 2000). It was also during this time however that Shawn learned about what would soon make him notorious, MP3 digital music files (Menn, 2003).

Soon upon graduating from Harwich High School in 1998, Shawn enrolled at nearby Northeastern University. What would eventually become Napster was created in the freshman dorm room of Fanning’s roommate at Northeastern University. After listening to the complaints of his roommate finding nothing but dead links for MP3 music files with conventional search engines like Lycos and Yahoo!, Shawn looked for an easier alternative. His idea was simple. He wanted to combine the conventional ease of use of the internet with file transferring technology similar to the Internet Relay Chat (IRC) network. Shawn knew that there should be a way to combine the breadth of search engines like Google with the “presence awareness” of systems like instant messaging, which know who is signed on at any given time (Menn, 2003). This was combined with having the option of individual users choose what files could be shared with others while connected to the Napster network. These innovative elements of the Napster program and network finally eliminated the problems associated with dead links. Additionally, by having all users store their music on their own computers, the electronic pipes would not clog if the new system just connected a pair of people and then dropped its own connection to them (Menn, 2003). Finally, added to these elements was a feature that enabled online Napster users to chat amongst each other in real-time.

Shawn dropped out of Northeastern in January 1999 in order to devote his full time to perfect his invention. According to former colleague Tarek Loubani, he has seldom seen anyone so focused. “I don’t think people can appreciate how hard he worked,” said Loubani (Menn, 2003). He remembers only vaguely that stage in mid-1999, unable to recall exact months, weeks or days. Among the only memories he has of that time is being hunched over his Dell notebook computer, writing the code and snoozing on his uncle John’s couch or floor. Afraid of having a software company introduce a similar product before him, he obsessively wrote the entire source code of Napster in 60 straight hours (Greenfeld, 2000). In May 1999, Shawn’s uncle John incorporated the company as Napster. John Fanning would retain a 70% stake in the corporation while nephew Shawn would only retain 30% stake in the corporation. The justification offered by uncle John was that Shawn desperately needed a seasoned businessman like him to handle the nuances of running the company. (Menn, 2003).

Word quickly spread around the Northeastern University campus as soon as their former classmate Shawn had a preliminary beta program of Napster ready for testing on June 1, 1999. Soon, hundreds of college students were busy trading music. This new revolutionary file sharing service quickly became the buzz among the internet literati frequenting bulletin boards and chat rooms. The Napster network was growing and it was growing at a speedy pace. Faced with the prospect of unprecedented popularity within such a short period of time, the Fannings set out to raise capital for additional bandwidth and servers. The company relocated from Hull, Massachusetts to San Mateo, California to a more spacious location and hired additional workers. The additional capital investment in Napster came just in time. Napster became so popular that some college campuses were experiencing clogged up servers from the amount students using Napster alone. Schools such as the Pennsylvania State University in 1999 issued a moratorium on the use of Napster on campus computers and internet connections in an attempt to alleviate the problem. Napster’s woes were only beginning.

The notoriety eventually caught the attention of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). The RIAA filed a lawsuit against Napster on December 7, 1999, alleging copyright infringement. Furthermore, the RIAA wanted compensation of $10,000 for every single copyrighted song traded across the Napster network. The unprecedented lawsuit garnered much media attention and further propelled Napster’s popularity, in particular with college students. Escalating droves of young people flocked to Napster to swap music, and the community soon touted millions of members worldwide. At any given time during this period, there would be millions of users online, trading hundreds of thousands of songs.

Later during spring of 2000, the heavy metal band Metallica learned that an unreleased studio outtake of their song “I Disappear” had been leaked and was being traded on Napster. The result was that the single was heard on numerous radio stations across America. Metallica was determined to find out how the song became so widely disseminated. The obvious culprit was Napster. A copyright infringement lawsuit was filed on April 13, 2000. After hiring consulting firm PDNet, Metallica soon discovered that during one weekend in April 2000, over 335,000 individual Napster users were trading their music online. On May 3, 2000 Napster was presented with 60,000 pages of user names that had allegedly traded copyrighted Metallica songs over the Napster network. Metallica demanded that Napster ban the 335,000 users for trading their copyrighted material, and Napster acquiesced. Napster attorney Laurence Pulgram stated, “Napster has taken extraordinary steps to comply with Metallica’s demands to block hundreds of thousands of its fans from using the Napster system.” He further added, “Napster has always stated that it would act in response to notice from copyright holders, and it has lived up to that commitment in good faith.” (Dansby & Uhelszki, 2000).

On May 5, 2000, Napster received a fatal legal blow. U.S. District Court Judge Marilyn Hall Patel ruled that Napster was not entitled to “safe harbor” status under the 1992 Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Napster’s original defense in its RIAA suit was that it was included under section 1008. This section in the Act explicitly stated that:

“No action may be brought under this title alleging infringement of copyright [1] based on the manufacture, importation, or distribution of a digital audio recording device, a digital audio recording medium, an analog recording device, or an analog recording medium, or [2] based on the noncommercial use by a consumer of such a device or medium for making digital musical recordings or analog musical recordings.”

The Court found that Napster’s users were engaged in widespread copyright violation. Furthermore, the ruling also stated that Napster is “contributorily and vicariously liable for their actions.” The exclusion under Section 1008 of the AHRA was inapplicable here, because the Act provides immunity only from noncommercial copying and not public distribution. The Napster network was composed of over 20 million people. Therefore, each time a user was logged onto the network and shared his or her hard drive contents, that user was distributing copyrighted material to the masses. Section 1008 of the AHRA deals with the reproduction and not the distribution of copyrighted material. Therefore According to the court, Napster users were in violation of copyright infringement and the Napster was facilitating copyright infringement. Judge Patel granted the RIAA request for a preliminary injunction and the site was ordered shut down on July 26, 2000.

In the interim, Napster appealed the judgment on October 2, 2000. The Napster appeal was lost on February 12, 2001. A bid of $1 billion from Napster to settle out of court with the recording industry was shortly rejected. On March 5, 2001, the Ninth Circuit Court ordered Napster to stop the trading of copyrighted material on its network. As a result, Napster began to use filters in its search engine. The Napster system completely blocked any artist or song title that was copyrighted from user searches. Popular artists and song titles were no longer showing up in search results. As a consequence, clever users of Napster circumvented the filters by intentionally misspelling the artist or song title on their hard drives. Napster users could still be able to download copyrighted music. As a consequence, Napster completely shut down its whole network in July 2001 to fully abide by the court injunction. On September 24, 2001, Napster settled with copyright holders to the tune of $26 million for the illegal use of music, and $10 million up front to cover impending royalty agreements. Napster announced on May 17, 2002 an agreement with Germany’s Bertelsmann AG. The agreement would allow a subscriber-based form of Napster to develop featuring the Bertelsmann AG music catalog, in exchange for the German company to drop its lawsuit against Napster. However on June 3, 2001 Napster filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11. The sale to Bertelsmann AG was blocked, and Napster was forced to divest its remaining assets.

The current legal incarnation of Napster is as a subscriber-based pay service. Roxio purchased the Napster assets at auction in 2002. According to Wikipedia (2005) a monthly charge of $9.95 is billed to members that can provisionally rent songs, with the option of paying an extra $0.80 to $0.90 to permanently download songs. While the new Napster has only a fraction of the old Napster’s popularity, others have filled the void in the peer-to-peer file-sharing world. Popular services like Kazaa, Limewire and Morpheus utilize the technology made infamous by Shawn Fanning. Yet where the original Napster had a central server, these services rely on connecting directly to other network users. They are inherently more difficult to regulate for copyright infringement and likewise nearly impossible to stop.

Cheap Online Discount Stock Broker Trading

Have you ever considered online trading? Trading through an Online Discount Broker is not a daunting task but it sure has its share of ups and downs. You are not a driven stock trader, agreed but you should consider opening an online account considering the recent developments in the online trading arena. Many online trading firms have reduced their fees as well as their responsibilities considering and are offering many low-cost financial services.

The Consumer Reports Money Lab broker Rating

According to the Consumer Reports Money Lab, around 19 online brokers are using a standard web browser such as Internet Explorer and Firefox. The ratings were done on the basis of cost and scope of the services offered by the companies. Eight companies among these 19 companies offered stock trades less than $ 10 while 6 companies reduced the orders to below $ 10 if the investors met their account size needs or trading activity. Some of the firms charged flat fees of $ 5.

Growing list of services offered by the company

Many online brokers are introducing new services to their existing portfolio. These include free stock research, free checking, ATM access, and automatic bill paying.

If you are venturing in the online stock trading market for the first time, check out a couple of online trading sites. Compare discount stockbrokers deals available on the various sites to select the cheapest online stock trading deal. Trade online and when you have gained confidence, invest in the larger stocks.

A prudent move that helps most of the investors is to compare the offers and services of these online brokerage firms. Although the deals look similar on the surface, most of the companies try to individualize their offers and services as much as possible. The commission rates vary from company to company and are often a deciding factor for the investor.

Online stock trading can be a thrilling experience if you learn to play it well and within your self defined limits. Start with small investments and slowly and steadily as you mature as a player, can try your luck at 'no holds barred' online trading game.

How To Scalp the Russell 2000 E-Mini Futures Effectively and Consistently

Upon first examination, the Russell 2000 E-mini futures contract is intimidating to the uninitiated trader. If you had your heart set on trading the ES contract, which is by far and away the most actively traded e-mini offering, the Russell 2000 (called the TF) has an extraordinary amount of price movement; which is exactly why you should consider the TF as one of the contracts you add to your trading repertoire. This dynamic contract presents the experienced trader and well-trained novice trader with set-up after set-up on a daily basis. Yet, many traders inexplicably concentrate on the High Frequency Trading riddled ES (the S&P 500 e-mini) as their contract of choice. While I do not trade the TF exclusively, it is an important part of my daily trading day and is always displayed on one of my monitors. On the other hand, I avoid all the HFT consolidation trading movement and arbitrage related trading on the ES like the plague.

The Russell 2000 (TF) is based upon small-cap stocks and some consider it a bellwether indicator for stock market movement in general. That being said, I could care less. As a TF scalper, I am interested in the smaller moves the contract presents and capitalizing on trading those moves effectively. Which is not to say that I do not enjoy trading the larger moves the on the Russell e-mini, just that there are ample 20 tick moves to satisfy even the most demanding trader. The movement in the contract is what “puts off” many traders, yet it is this movement that can make the TF e-mini such a money machine, when traded properly. Don’t let the market noise in this instrument put you off; it can be traded effectively with the right tools.

Most TF trading can be classified into two broad categories; bracketed trading and trending price movement. Either way, the TF will present ample opportunities to initiate winning trades.

What is the secret to trading the Russell 2000 e-mini?

I pay close attention to bar by bar order flow in relation to the general market structure defined by Market Profile. Order flow is order flow; which means that once this contract starts to move in potentially profitable TPO’s identified in the daily structure of the market, you can simply watch the orders accumulate, either short or long, and hang in the trade until you see the specific area where traders driving the market in your direction lose interest. I should point out that lagging indicators are not especially effective on the TF because of the speed of some of the price movement. However, using real-time order flow data, you can observe the orders piling up on one side of the contract and trade in that direction with relative certainty. As a further aid, I am generally running a consolidated tape reading table to observe orders as they accumulate at each index price.

I also pay close attention to volume readings at known points of support and resistance to give me insight into whether or not a breakout or breakdown is imminent. You can observe the same on your order flow and notice whether the delta is increasing or decreasing at known support and resistance. Any quality order flow indicator will tabulate these deltas’ in real time for observation. You might note that real-time indicators are the name of the game for high percentage trading on this contract.

I would also recommend keeping the Average True Range (ATR) indicator under observation to determine whether or not the price movement is in your identified risk profile. For my purposes, I use 2x the ATR to determine my profit target and stop/loss point; if the 2x the ATR exceeds 25 ticks I simply wait for the price action to settle down and resume trading. In my mind, I am only willing to risk 25 ticks ($250) on any given trade on this contract. You should also keep in mind the size of your trading account when trading the TF; never risk more than 1-3% of your account value on a trade. If my $250 dollar stop loss is more than 3% of your account size, you would be wise to trade the Russell 2000 when the ATR is lower and more appropriate for your risk tolerance and trading account. Money management is important on the TF e-mini, as it is in trading in general.

In summary, I would encourage you to take a close look at the Russell 2000 e-mini and implement the real-time trading indicators I have identified. I have also stated that if you are a lagging indicator trader this contract will give you fits; I feel this way about all e-mini trading. Give the TF a look, and trade it in real time with one contract, which is all you really need on this dynamic contract. As always, best of luck in your trading.

A Biography of KHIEU Samphan (PhD)

Extraordinary chamber to try some of the top leaders during Democratic Kampuchea Regime; a regime that is accused of killing millions of Cambodian innocent lives, is in the process. This is probably the most heated topic from the government institution up to the general public. However, a prevailing fact that would dim “the justice prospect” for Cambodian people is that a huge number of the people do not even know the basic biography of those most responsible; Democratic Kampuchea leaders to face trial, constituted of Cambodian and international judges.

Mr. KHIEU Samphan, one of the prominent leaders of many other Democratic Kampuchea leaders is due to face the foregoing extraordinary chamber; however, a huge number of Cambodian people, old and young, do not even have even a basic knowledge pertaining this man: This is the fact that I hypothesize that Cambodian prospect to justice is apparently faint. The entire contents of the following compiled essay will unveil KHIEU Samphan’s on-the-surface biographical details.

I. Childhood

Mr. KHIEU Samphan who is considered as brother number five, after SALOTH Sar (Pol Pot), NUON Chea, IENG Sary and TA Mok, is believed to be born July 27, 1931 in Svay Rieg province. He is the oldest son in the family. His father was a local judge. After a compulsory education in his hometown, KHIEU Samphan pursued his education to Sisowat High School in Phnom Penh. During his time, Sisowat or Preah Sisowat High School was believed to be the top high school in Cambodia. Only the uptown-class or outstanding students would attend this educational institution.

KHIEU Samphan’s childhood is not dramatically known, and until now, resources about his childhood are still inadequate and even unreliable. But he became better noted after winning the government scholarship to study in the University of Paris in Paris city, France.

Since his childhood, Mr. KHIEU Samphan was believed to be a “serious and good-natured” man, up to being entitled: A clean man. Because of these outstanding personalities, he was granted with government scholarship to pursue his studies in Paris, France, up to achieving Doctor of Economics. It was from here, the University of Paris, that Max Lenin ideologies have been inserted into Cambodian intellectuals who latter became leader of Democratic Kampuchea. History has told that the universities in Paris have created most of the Cambodian intellectuals.

Pursuant to American sources, Mr. KHIEU Samphan was reported to be one of the most outstanding students amongst his generation. Other astoundingly outstanding students in KHIEU Samphan’s generation including HOU Yun who mastered Economics and Law. Mr. HOU Yun (born 1930) was classified as the astoundingly physical and intellectual person and another genius was Mr. SON Sen who red education and literature.

II. Studies in Paris and Doctoral Thesis

Mr. KHIEU Samphan granted his Doctoral Degree in Economics from the University of Paris, a world-wide recognized university in humanity and materialistic and ideological invention.

KHIEU Samphan who was one of the pivotal members of Khmer Student Association in Paris selected a doctoral thesis, entitled: “Cambodia’s Economy and Industrial Development” and successfully defended this thesis. His Doctoral Degree in Economics was granted during the 1950s.

It can be brief that his doctoral thesis sided with national self-reliance. From deeper analysis into his doctoral thesis, more personalities of KHIEU Samphan would be more understandable. KHIEU Samphan accused the rich countries that have advanced industrialization are the factors to make the poor countries poorer. The core of hi doctoral thesis, was that he supported “dependency theory.” So what is dependency theory?

Dependency theory is the body of social science theories by various intellectuals, both from the Third World and the First World, that create a worldview which suggests that the wealthy nations of the world need a peripheral group of poorer states in order to remain wealthy.

Dependency theory states that the poverty of the countries in the periphery is not because they are not integrated into the world system, or not ‘fully’ integrated as is often argued by free market economists, but because of how they are integrated into the system.

The premises of dependency theory are:

-Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a destination for obsolete technology, and markets to the wealthy nations, without which they could not have the standard of living they enjoy.

-First World nations actively, but not necessarily consciously, perpetuate a state of dependency through various policies and initiatives. This state of dependency is multifaceted, involving economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, sport and all aspects of human resource development.

-Any attempt by the dependent nations to resist the influences of dependency will result in economic sanctions and/or military invasion and control.

The doctoral thesis herein is believed to be strictly adopted into political administration of Democratic Kampuchea. Not only the KHIEU Samphan’s doctoral thesis, HOU Yun’s doctoral thesis entitled: Cambodian peasants and their prospects for modernization, is also believed to have great influence on general policy of Democratic Kampuchea (DK).

Though these two doctoral thesis became the perils of Democratic Kampuchea’s political administration, these two people are yet to be accused of being the mastermind of the sins committed during DK’s reign. Yes, would mean their doctoral thesis intended to extinguish million of Cambodian lives and No, would mean the head of the Democratic Kampuchea may exaggerate the contents of the thesis or scapegoat the two intellectuals.

Because the intellectuality of Cambodian people who graduated from universities in Paris during the 1950s, Cambodia was praised as the first communist country that was led by intellectuals, in Asia.

III. Group of Khmer Students in Paris (Initiation of Political Ideology)

During the 1950s, Cambodian students who were studying in different universities in Paris, integrated to establish their own communist movement and this movement was believed to have very little connection with their home government. So of the returned members of this movement returned to their home countries and took up political leadership positions in DK government, including KHIEU Samphan, POL Pot, IENG Sary, to name just a very few. It was from this movement: Khmer Student Association, that KHIEU Samphan was converted into an all-out communist. The involvement of Cambodian students who returned from universities in Paris was to set up a movement to combat against LON Nol and Prince Norodom Sihanouk where were deemed as corrupt and egoist. Such the movement of these students was then improve to a regime, called “Democratic Kampuchea.”

IV. Political Life

KHIEU Samphan arrived back in Cambodia in 1959, with a doctoral degree in Economics from the University of Paris. Immediately after his arrival in Cambodia, he took up a position in the Faculty of Law in Phnom Penh; simultaneously, establish a French-language journal entitled, L’observateur. This journal strongly sided with the leftist. The purpose if this journal was to better the social justice and other field of humanity in Cambodia during that time. But this never resisted him from commitment to Cambodian social justice. It was from this journal that KHIEU Samphan won great popularity from the public, especially the students. However, this journal did not survive long; it was closed just after one year, KHIEU Samphan was arrested and undressed in the public by Prince Norodom Sihanouk.

After the coupe in 1970, Prince Norodom Sihanouk collaborated with other Khmer communists, including his former enemy: KHIEU Samphan, to resist against LON Nol government. In this coalition government, KHIEU Samphan was nominated as the Deputy Prime Minister, Minster of National Defense and the Commander-in-Chief of the Coalition Government. It was from these political events that KHIEU Samphan climbed to the top positions within the Democratic Kampuchea regime.

His political life during the Democratic Kampuchea era (1975-1978) was hard to unveil, due to the fact that confidentiality and secrecy were the leadership strategies of the DK leaders.

KHIEU Samphan is now living in his last military stronghold: Pailin Municipality, the province in the most west of Cambodia, bordered with Thailand.

V. Students Talk Trial with Ex-KR Leaders in Pailin

Extracted from The Cambodia Daily, Friday, August 26, 2005

A group of university students canvassing villages to conduct interviews about the Khmer Rouge regime and distribute information about the long-awaited tribunal ended up in unlikely conversations with former Khmer Rogue leaders Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea in their Pailin Municipality homes last week.

Graduate student and Documentation Center of Cambodia intern Huy Vannak organized the group for a planned distribution of the documents in Pailin. And despite their apprehensions at bringing Khmer Rogue tribunal literature to the foremost former rebel stronghold, the group decided to seek out the aging communist leaders’ at their homes.

“I thought because of security and cooperation we should not go to the Khmer Rouge stronghold,” Huy Vanak said Thursday. “I told myself we should not fear the Khmer Rogue. During the Khmer Rouge regime they tried to frighten my mother, to frighten everybody…. I have learned a lot. Khmer rouge are not tigers. They are human beings.”

The group went to Khieu Samphan’s house near the eastern side of central Pailin, but were initially rejected despite a polite “chum reap sour” and assurances that they were students, not journalists.

Khieu Samphan, former Democratic Kampuchea head of state, eventually acquiesced and asked them to return later in the afternoon.

Next, the students went to find Brother No 2 Nuon Chea, who lives about 300 meters from the Thai border in Brother No 3 Ieng Sary’s son-in-law’s house, surrounded by his children and grandchildren.

“[Nuon Chea’s] wife asked us ‘who are you, and where do you come from?”” Huy Vannak said. “We told her we are students and we ant to learn about Pailin. She said, ‘grandfather is sleeping, but it’s ok, you can talk to him.””

Nuon Chea emphasized religion in their talk, and denied that religion had been suppressed under the Khmer Rouge.

He maintained that people were just busy building the country and so could not give alms, so monks were forced to feed themselves.

“I think Mr. Nuon Chea is open-minded, but when he answers it’s not so good,” said group member Ean Sopheap. “When I asked him questions, he looked at other people when he answered.”

“I never expected that I could meet a Khmer Rouge leader,” Ean Sophea added. “I was born in 1980.”

The students returned to Khieu Samphan’s home in the evening. “I feel that Khieu

Samphan is a trustworthy and gentle man. He is an intellectual from what I know,” said another member of the group, 22-year-old student Chheng Koemseng. “My parents used to tell me that Pol Pot’s men were very cruel, but when I met them face-to-face. I felt they are just old men, like my grandfather.”

However, Huy vanak was less than sympathetic. “The two guys told us only a small chapter of the history. We need more answers from them. Why did they give people less food? Why did they evacuate people? Why did they kill people? They said they did not know about the killing. How could they not know?”

The students discussed the tribunal very little with the aging Khmer Rouge leaders, but Khieu Samphan didn’t seem worried.

“Khieu Samphan said if they have a tribunal people will not be happy, because he is an honest guy and has devoted everything to the country, and people would not be happy with the court’s decision,” Huy Vannak said.

“I almost told him people would [still not be] happy if the court cut him into two million pieces.”

The Impact of the Internet on Contemporary Literature

Literature basically is everything that has ever been written. Anything from the earliest poems of Homer, to today’s web pages, can be considered literature. But for a specific sense, there are various kinds of literature. Literature can be written in a specific language, like English Literature or be written by a specific culture, such as African Literature. But literature really means more than printed words and the internet certainly is a part of literature. I should note that the word literature comes from the French phrase belles-lettres, which means “beautiful writing”. When a piece of work is called literature, it is usually considered a great work of art. The internet literature does not necessarily have to be this way for the fact that no one controls the internet literature. In the following essay I am going to speak about the impact of the internet on literature of nowadays.

There are two main classes of literature which are also present on the internet: fiction and nonfiction. Fiction is writing that an author creates from the imagination. Authors may include personal experience, or facts about real people or events, but they combine these facts with imagined situations (Moran, 45). In non-internet literature the project undergoes at least some sort of censorship in terms of what words can be used, yet the internet allows the authors to put anything they desire on the web site and enjoy it. Most fiction is narrative writing, such as novels and short stories. Fiction also includes drama and poetry. Nonfiction is factual writing about real-life situations. The principal forms of nonfiction include the essay, biography, autobiography, and diary (Browner, 90). The internet presents a new forms–internet pages, or internet books.

People read literature for a variety of reasons. The most common reason for reading is pleasure. People read to pass the time, or for information and knowledge. Through literature, people meet characters they can identify with, and sometimes find solutions for their own problems. With literature, a person can often understand situations they could not otherwise understand in real life (Koehler, 28). Often, just the arrangement of the words can be enjoyable, just as a child likes the sound of “Ring Around the Rosie”, even though they might not understand what the words mean. There are four elements of literature: characters, plot, theme, and style. A good author has the ability to balance these elements, creating a unified work of art. The characters make up the central interest of many dramas and novels, as well as biographies and autobiographies. A writer must know each character thoroughly and have a clear idea about each ones look, speech, and thoughts. The internet literature is not difficult to create for the fact that unlike “traditional” literature the internet literature requires minimal start up costs (Moran, 47). And because reading usually involves convenience, at some point of time one would not be surprised to see convenient electronic devices that could be transported anywhere and would download books from the internet and present them in digital format.

Motivation is the reason for characters actions. A good writer will be sure that the motives of a character are clear and logical. The internet writers do not have to be this way, they are not controlled and they hardly risky anything by publishing online. Setting is where a character’s story takes place. The plot is built around a series of events that take place within a definite period. It is what happens to the characters. No rules exist for the order in which the events are presented. A unified plot has a beginning, middle, and an end. In literary terms, a unified plot includes an exposition, a rising action, a climax, and a denouement, or outcome. The exposition gives the background and situation of the story (Browner, 93). The rising action builds upon the exposition. It creates suspense, or a reader’s desire to find out what happens next. The climax is the highest point of interest, also a turning point of a story. The denouement is the conclusion. The theme is the basic idea expressed by a work of literature. It develops from the interplay of character and plot. A theme may contain morals, to warn the reader to lead a better life or a different kind of life. The internet literature does not have to be this way at all because no one controls it. The write take minimal risk in terms of investment, yet possibly can find readers from all over the world, which can pay for the e-book and download it to their own computers, is very high (Moran, 49).

A serious writer strives to make his work an honest expression of sentiment, or true emotion. They avoid sentimentality, which means giving too much emphasis to emotion or pretending to feel an emotion. A writer of honest emotion does not have to tell the reader what to think about a story. A good story will direct the reader to the author’s conclusion. Style is the way a writer uses words to create literature. It is difficult to enjoy a story’s characters or plot without enjoying the author’s style (Browner, 98). The style of an author is as important as what he is trying to say. Point of view, or the way a story is presented, is another part of style. A writer may tell a story in the first person, using the pronoun I, as though the narrator were a major or minor character in it. Or, the writer may use the third person method, in which the narrator stands apart from the characters and describes the action using such pronouns as he and she. There are two types of third person views: limited and omniscient. In the third person limited point of view, the narrator describes the events as seen by a single character. In the third person omniscient, or all knowing, point of view, the narrator reports on what several characters are thinking and feeling. Reading is an intently personal art. There are no final rules for judging a piece of writing. Often, people’s judgment of a work can change as taste and fashion change. Yet the classics continue to challenge readers’ imaginations and give ageless advice. Shakespeare will most likely be as popular a hundred years from now as he is today. That is power of literature. Literature is timeless (Moran, 53).

It should be noted that literature can have many and different values on a person and it is the internet that allows literary values to be delivered to the audience without any barriers. It is all depending on the story and the value or moral issue the author wants, you, the reader to get out of it. The value literature had on me was actually hard to put into words. But to understand the value of literature you must know the definition of value and literature. Value has many meanings but there is two that relate (Browner, 102). Worth in usefulness or importance to the possessor and a principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable. Literature is a body of writings in prose or verse. Literature produces value because it is basically an analysis of an experience or situation (Koehler, 30). I got a different value out of each story. With Mark Twain’s The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn it showed me that one does not have to be civilized or conform to the ideas of society to become cultured or mature. With Huck Finn he ran away from everything that was considered civilized (Moran, 58). He had nothing and really did not want anything. But at the same time he experienced and matured living dangerously. This made me value Huck’s adventure and take it as my own. Huck proves his maturity when he comments on how the king and duke dupe the villagers into believing that they are the dead man’s brothers, and Huck says, “I never see anything so disgusting.”(Twain 163) Even though the king and duke commit an awful act on the villagers he still feels sorry for them when they get tarred. Huck comments, “Human beings can be awful cruel to one another.”(Twain 225) In William Faulkner’s Barn Burning it told of a man named Abner Snopes who burned barns when upset or mad. This was his way of getting back at them. “Barn Burning” has two very evident struggles (Browner, 105). Abner oppresses his family just as the upper class has oppressed him. “Barn Burning” to me is based on misdirected anger. Which is basically happening in these days. For example, a teenager and his parents have it out, he leaves, and now his anger is directed toward anything in his pathway. “Barn Burning” has a value in that it shows in life that people actually misdirect their anger. Such as in the school shootings and bomb threats that have occurred in the past couple of years (Koehler, 33). Just like Abner Snopes felt like an outsider to the upper class, so did the students who committed these violent acts. In “The Swimmer”, it made me value life and what it brings. Because if your not careful or you do not watch out it will past you up without notice (Browner, 109). As with “Everyday Use”, one of the daughters did not value who she was or whom she was because she was going out looking for her history. Which she already had at her fingertips.


In conclusion I would like to note that reading all of the literature which colleges and universities assign to their students involves very high costs to the society in terms of paper consumption and time wasting (that involves going to the library, or to the book shop, etc). The internet and the ability to download the books from online to one portable device would reduce the costs, save the trees, and will make people more efficient. I realize that there are a lot of things that we as people in this society take for granted. Literature has made me value a lot of experiences and situations so far and I enjoy holding the paper book in the evening preparing for the next day, yet I do not protest against the use of the digital technology to create digital books that would contribute not only to the efficiency but also to the reduced costs to the whole society.

Sir Tom Stoppard, the Early Plays – Albert’s Bridge

Sir Tom Stoppard, the early plays.

5. Albert’s Bridge

Sir Tom Stoppard’s play Albert’s Bridge (Radio, 1967), develops similar themes to those of his earlier plays, concentrating specifically on the opposition between chaos and order. Like John Brown of A Separate Peace (1960), Albert cannot stand the chaos of everyday life, and seeks an escape into a more ordered existence. In A Separate Peace the problem was presented largely in terms of physical circumstances, the hospital being a world more ordered than the outside world. In Albert’s Bridge, the physical circumstances are equated with conceptual, or psychological factors, which belong to the subjective world of individual perception. Hence the peace of mind Albert finds high up among the geometrically ordered bridge girders, away from the human demands of his wife and child, is equated with the concept of seeing life from a distance, as opposed to seeing it close up.

Albert: ‘The banks are littered with various bricks, kiddiblocks with windows; dinky toys move through the gaps, dodged by moving dots that have no colour … It’s the most expensive toytown in the store – the detail is remarkable.’

Kate: I saw you today … coming out of the hairdressers. Six and six, I had it cut.

Albert: Just goes to show – if you get far enough away, six and sixpence doesn’t show, and nor does anything, at a distance.

Kate: Well, life is all close up isn’t it?

Albert: Yes, it hits you when you come back down. (pp. 22-23.)

This concept of varying perspective is reinforced by Frazer, a potential suicide who climbs the bridge in order to jump off. But from the heights of the bridge he escapes the pressure which caused his despair and therefore no longer wants to jump. Back on the ground the pressure builds up again and he climbs the bridge again, so he spends his time repeatedly ascending and descending the bridge. He explains:-

‘I can’t help it. I’m forced up and coaxed down. I’m a victim of perspective.’ (p.35.)

Albert becomes entirely dependent on his job and eventually abandons his wife and child in favour of the bridge. His family life is ruined by his hankering for order. His situation does not last though, the bridge finally collapses when 1,800 painters march on to it without breaking step; an excess of order on a physical level. The authorities have called in the army of painters because in planning the most economical way to paint the bridge they have, like George Riley of Enter a Free Man, relied entirely on logic and forgotten common sense; an excess of order on a mental level. Thus the play illustrates, on a number of levels, the thesis that an excess of order causes collapse due to the upsetting of some kind of natural balance.

The four plays discussed so far (A Separate Peace, Enter a Free Man, If You’re Glad I’ll be Frank) have a unity as a group, or cycle of works. They are unified by the themes they explore, and the methods by which they explore them. It is worth summarising the observations made so far, as a basis for approaching Stoppard’s major works. Each of the ‘heroes’ is an individual struggling to establish some kind of relationship with the rest of the world. They all ultimately fail to achieve what they were striving for; ‘the world’ asserts its superior strength over the individual The struggle is seen in terms of a series of dialectical oppositions, and the failure arises not because one side of the argument is ‘wrong but because one side has been asserted to the exclusion of the other. The opposing principles take on a number of guises; Chaos versus Order, Freedom versus Responsibility, Illusion versus Reality, Logic versus Common Sense, the Individual versus ‘The Establishment’, etc.

The key for dealing with these apparently irreconcilable opposites is the concept of perspective. The world is too chaotic for John Brown and Albert, and too rigidly ordered for Gladys and Frank. But it is the same world. The way we see the world depends upon the way we look at it; reality is relative. This is the heart of the ‘world picture’ established by Stoppard in his early minor works. He goes on to expand and elaborate this view in his longer works Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and Jumpers, and arrives at a definitive statement with Travesties.

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What Is the Best Indicator to Use With Renko Charts?

A commonly asked question on renko charts is whether you need to have additional indicators to trade on the chart. And if yes, what are those indicators that are best suited to trade with renko charts.

As you might know, renko charts are strictly based on price. Time, which is plotted on the x-axis, is irrelevant when it comes to this unconventional chart type. Based on the number of pips price move, which can be determined by yourself, the renko bricks plot the price bricks accordingly. You might know that probably the best indicator is price itself. Therefore, by determining the price action and the patterns that are formed, traders don’t really need to have any further indicators to be used.

Depending on your level of understanding of the financial markets, such as identifying trends, highs/lows formed in price, the retracements and so on, traders have a higher chance of capturing prices at a good level to enter into the trend. Even without using indicators, renko charts can help you to scalp the markets, whether you are in it for 10 pips or 100 pips, renko charts makes is entirely possible depending on the type of technical trading strategy that you make use of. It is entirely up to the trader and depends on how they want to conduct their renko analysis of the charts and also in determining the brick size..

Money management or risk management can also be utilized when trading with renko charts and especially without indicators. Due to the very nature of the reversals in renko boxes, it can be of great help when traders can position themselves in a trade based on understanding the price and other technical patterns are more easy to spot in this chart type.

For example, we know that a renko box reversal occurs when prices moves twice the box size in the opposite direction. Therefore, the risk of a reversal is always two times the box size. For example, 20 pips for a 10 pip renko box and so on. With this information, traders can prepare their positions before hand and thus be able to set a minimum take profit of 3 times the renko reversal, which in our example would be 60 pips. This, this effectively puts the risk at 20 pips while the reward at 60 pips, making it a 1:3 risk reward set up. Conservative traders can make use of a 1:2 risk reward as well, such as 20 pips risk and 40 pips reward.

This same principle can be applied to the renko chart analysis, regardless of whether you use indicators or not. Traders can build a money management strategy which allows them to make consistent profits regularly. We mentioned earlier as to what is the best technical indicator to use with this chart type. We suggest making use of moving averages and an oscillator, or making use of Bollinger bands and an oscillator.

Many a times Forex forums tend to be overrun by renko traders who make use of complicated indicators. It doesn’t quite help and it does not give you an edge in the markets.

In summary, as outlined in this article, traders don’t really need to make use of additional indicators to trade renko charts profitably. However, having said that, there are a few technical indicators that work well with renko charts.

Great Jobs For People Who Love Working With Numbers

If you have always been the type of person who loved working with numbers and you were a math whiz in school, working with numbers may be a great career for you. There are plenty of options for those who enjoy the detail oriented requirements of working with numbers. Not everyone has the patients or exacting nature to spend their days staring at figures. However, if this is something you enjoy, your career options are both plentiful and prosperous. Live trading or working with technical analysis trading allows you to watch numbers all day long and make business investments based on what you see. You need to have a gut instinct for numbers and for the market, but if you are able to combine your talent with numbers and a strong gut instinct for market trends, you may have a long and prosperous career in front of you.

The market is not for everyone, but you may still enjoy working with money. Banking is one of the steadiest jobs a person can have. Creative types may think working in a bank is like a life sentence in prison, but if you are analytical and detail oriented, it may be the right career for you. Best of all, even those who enjoy working around people can work in a bank. It is sometimes a struggle to find a job that allows you to work with numbers while also being social and spending time with the community. Banking is the right job for friendly, social people who are good with numbers.

If you prefer to be more behind the scenes and work in more of a support role, consider a career in accounting. Accountants are often the unsung heroes of a company. They keep the budget on track with very little notice or recognition. Unlike departments like customer service or human resources, they have very little opportunity to work with other people. If you are the type who likes to go into your office, get your work done and be left alone, accounting may be the right job for you.

Those who enjoy the support role but who yearn for personal interaction can look into personal finance managing. There are a lot of people in the world who need assistance planning their financial presents and futures. If you are savvy with investments and you enjoy working with numbers and money, you can help people who would rather focus on other areas of their lives.

If you like working with numbers, but money is of no interest to you or the idea of handling someone else’s money is intimidating to you; consider a career as a statistician. In this field, you are still number crunching, but a lot of the pressure that is there with money is lacking with statistics. There are stat jobs for people with a wide range of interests and the field is used in everything from sports to politics to medicine. It is easy for a statistician to find work that combines two or more of their interests.

How to Define a Risk Management Consultant and Their Work

Risk management consultants are experts, who are hired on part time basis in order to help solve problems. In a financial services business, risk management includes assessing and quantifying business risks and taking actions to control or diminish them. Risk management often is a part of the observance function, but may also be a part of precise business units, such as securities trading desks or loan instigation departments.

Risk management is apprehensive with identifying and computing the risks faced by the firm. Risk managers can either be generalists, who cover several diverse areas or specialists, who deliberate on a single one. Within the financial services commerce, the major categories of risk consist of, but are not limited to, defaults on loans unmitigated by the firms, losses on securities stocks held by traders, losses on speculation securities held for the bank account of the firm, counter party risk which, happens when another financial is failing in its obligations to yours etc.

Risk-management consultants identify, characterize and assess the threats which are a business is facing. They also assess the susceptibility of critical assets to specific threats and determine the danger that is the expected consequences of precise types of attacks on specific assets. One of their major tasks is to identify different ways to reduce those risks and prioritize risk reduction measures, based on an approach, especially designed to tackle the confronting risks.

Risk-management personnel enlarge, put into practice and make obligatory all the rules and procedures, designed to alleviate these risks. For example, the value of inventory held by a securities trader might be strictly restricted.

Risk-management personnel also make use of various financial instruments and contracts to control risks, such as insurance, swaps, derivatives, futures contracts and options contracts. These options make the risk managers bring all their terminologies and techniques into practice.

Risk management is a critical function, and thus, has an enormous deal of inherent job satisfaction. Furthermore, positions in this area of practice are well-paid and well-respected, whereas, the work can be fast-paced and motivating.

The disadvantage of working in such a significant field is that the demands of the job can become overwhelming in unstable periods for the industry or the firm, when substantial decisions may have to be made on a short notice. Also, the “policeman” aspect of risk-management can create a disagreeable adversarial association with some categories of producers, especially securities traders.

In short, the demand of risk managers is increasing day by day and their task is very crucial in eliminating the different types of risks, associated with the business. They are responsible for devising a fool proof plan in order to tackle risks and problems.

The De Young Museum – Artwork Highlights & Tips for Visiting

The M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, located in San Francisco, California houses one of the most significant collections of American artwork on the West Coast. The Museum is located in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park and was opened in 1895 by newspaper icon M.H. de Young, founder of what is known today as the San Francisco Chronicle. The original Museum collection was comprised solely of M.H. de Young’s personal artwork collection that represented over 300,000 articles that were collected during his 20 years of world travels.

The Museum’s permanent collection today includes paintings, sketches, art sculpture, photographs, and decorative art objects. Of this, the De Young displays 25,000 works of art at any given time. The majority of its collection is made up of the American art collection with artwork dating back from the 7th century to present day. Highlights of this collection include Wayne Thiebaud’s Three Machines, Frederic Edwin Church’s Rainy Season in the Tropics, Grant Wood’s Dinner for Threshers, George Bingham’s Boatmen on the Missouri, and Chiura Obata’s Lake Basin in the High Sierra.

The de Young’s permanent collection also includes the Art of Africa, that represents artwork from over 80 cultural and ethnic groups in sub-Sahara Africa. The collection comprises a large part of the permanent collection and an covers a quarter of the museum’s gallery. Among this collection is a wooden Dogon sculpture used in religious ceremonies and a multi-headed bush spirit from Ijo.

The third major part of the Museum’s permanent collection is the Art of Oceana. The highlight of the Oceana exhibit is the The Jolika Collection of New Guinea Art, a special exhibition of over 400 tribal artifacts such as tribal masks and ritualistic objects. The Jolika collection is the largest collection of New Guinea Art in North America and includes over 400 works of art alone.

  • Hours: Daily: 930a-515p; Closed Mondays.
  • Audio Guides are available at the Main Entrance. Cost: $7.
  • The de Young Memorial Museum offers free guided tours to all visitors. No reservations required. Check with the Museum for scheduling.
  • If you are visiting San Francisco for a few days, you may consider purchasing a CityPASS Card. It gives discounted admission to tourist attractions and Cable Car. Check their website for details.
  • The first Tuesday of every month is Free admission.
  • Admission tickets to the de Young includes same-day general admission to the Legion of Honor.