What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Trading?

Due to the problems that arose during paper shares, there was a need of a system that would make share transfer, buying / selling of shares, etc. an easier affair.

Therefore in 1996, the Indian parliament passed the Derivatives act, which allowed online transaction of shares, thus making it much easier for the broker and investor.

In the new online Trading system, an investor must open a demat account with one of the Stock Brokers to start trading online.

A demat account is a must for an investor to trade online.

Mentioned below are some of the advantages of trading online:

1) Easier and convenient way to own shares

2) Immediate transfer

3) Zero stamp duty on transfer of shares

4) Safer than paper shares, eg, fake signatures, delay, thefts, etc.

5) Lesser paperwork for transfer of securities

6) Less transaction cost

7) No "odd" problems. Even a single share can be sold.

8) DP registers a change in address with all companies. No need for the investor to contact the companies immediately.

9) DP transmission of securities, thus eliminating the need of notifying the companies.

10) Automatic credit in demat accounts

11) Both equity and debt instruments can be held by a demat account

The depository system aids in reducing the expenditure of new issues due to lesser printing and distribution costs. It increases the efficiency of the registrars and transfer agents and the secretarial department of a company. It provides better facilities for communication and timely service to shareholders and investors.

The disadvantages of online trading are mentioned below:

1) Investors, who are trading for the first time, go with the flow and get immersed in technology and actually temporarily forget that they are actually using their real money.

2) There is no relationship that of a mentor between a professional broker and an online trading account holder, thus leaving the investor on his own to make choices of the right shares.

3) Users who are not familiar with the ins and outs of the basics of brokerage software can make mistakes which can prove to be a costly affair.

4) This is like any other financial strategy, where your commitment to online trading takes research and dedication to make sure by yourself that everything is up to par. You have to take time out to do your own research where you will have to overcome a great learning curve to make some money from online trading a possibility.

Invest In Your Future By Learning How to Buy And Sell Shares for Profit

We all see people making their fortunes from the Stock market, however, when it comes to actually looking at doing it ourselves – the road can seem rather scary for most of us. When we approach the topic with our money and financial future at stake, the task can appear daunting at best. In this article I'm going to take one step toward dispelling those fears and show you the first steps to take toward a financially rewarding future.

The internet and the evolution of technology have enabled many folks to become seriously successful traders. The whole process has become so simplified that most successful traders these days trade from the comfort of their own homes. As more people have leveraged this technology, the fat commissions paid by small investors to Brokerage Houses are almost forgotten. Online trading is by far the most convenient, cost effective and accessible platform for anyone contemplating buying and selling shares.

When you commence learning how to buy and sell shares for profit you see that you are on a significant learning curve. Luckily, you are not alone as there are now some very good, reputable online courses that are low cost and ideal for a learner trader to invest in. These online courses enable you to learn from experts, who have made their fortunes in the market and have broken down the learning process into manageable pieces. It's best to do your research, as you are now by reading this article, and find the right course for you so that you can quickly progress and begin to realize the financial gains you are seeking.

So – how do you find the right course?

Start with looking at who is the author of the course. This is the first step in you doing your due diligence and do as much background research on them as you can. Ask if they are traders themselves and what evidence do they have of their own success. Learning in many cases is modelling and we need to model ourselves on those who have achieved what we want to at some level. Research the content of the course offered and how it's delivered. Most are now delivered through webinars or online video which you can often download and watch over and over to ensure you have grasped the concepts.

Here's what a good course should offer you.

The ideal course takes you on a journey of learning the basic fundamentals through to the more advanced strategies where you can maximize your profits potential. There must be a strong module on research and analysis as this is the core principle of profitable trading. By understanding which shares to buy and when to sell them, you obviously place yourself in excellent stead to profit well. The technical aspects of buying and selling shares must also be covered in good detail. This would include establishing your Online Brokerage Accounts and how to best leverage them for the best deal on each trade, or trading plan. If the course you're considering covers these basic objectives, then you have found a good course to get started with and gain the skills and know-how to achieve your financial goals.

If you have found yourself worried about making ends meet, struggled to pay bills or have become concerned about your financial future, then buying and selling shares for profit can certainly change your financial position. It's not about becoming the next Gordon Geko, it's about taking responsibility for your own financial well-being. Like driving a car, or learning a language, it's not that complicated and it's a skill that just about anyone can learn and apply. By learning from those who have already become successful traders, you stand an excellent chance at enjoying a similar outcome.

Different Types of Stocks and Stock Markets

For a new investor, it is important to know the various kinds of stocks available in the market and the different markets in which they are traded, or the different stock markets.

There are two basic kinds of stocks:

1. Common Stocks
2. Preferred Stocks

A common stock is the "basic stock" of a company that is directly affected by the fluctuation in the profit and loss of the company. These stocks are also issued to the employees of the company. Although, high risk is associated with common stocks, they are also a vehicle for making high profit as there are no fixed dividends attached to them. After the common stocks, the preferred stocks are distributed to the chosen stakeholders. These stocks carry a fixed dividend associated with them that is paid at regular intervals to stakeholders. They can further be classified into A, B, and C categories having different prices, restrictions, and dividend amounts.

Preferred stockholders are paid their dividends much before the common stockholders are paid their profits. If due to some reason a company liquidates, its preferred stockholders get back their money, while common stockholders may not. However, there is less profit associated with preferred stocks.

Stock splits are issued by companies when there is a huge decrease in the demand for its stocks. Here, an investor is able to buy twice the value of stock for the same amount of money. With increased demand, there may be a reverse split, which is just the opposite of a stock split. However, there is no loss of money for the investor for both these kind of transactions.

The actual place where the trading of securities takes place is called a stock exchange. There are again two basic kinds of stock exchanges:

1. Physical Exchange: For example, NYSE and AMEX
2. Virtual / Online Exchange: For example, NASDAQ

The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) has been operational since 1792. It is located on the Wall Street, and has strict rules for companies to get listed. The NYSE lists big corporations, such as Coca-Cola, Wal-Mart, and General Electric. The NYSE is also known as an "auction market"; this is because investors bid for shares on the floor as in an auction and the share goes to the lowest bidder. It is believed, that the stocks on the NYSE are less volatile and more stable. The maximum listing fee for the exchange is $ 250,000 and the maximum continual yearly listing fee is $ 50,000.

The American Stock Exchange (AMEX) is another major physical exchange operating in Manhattan. AMEX's core business however lies with exchange -traded funds. In 1998, AMEX merged with the National Association of Securities Dealers (operators of NASDAQ) to form "The NASDAQ-Amex Market Group." The AMEX has liberal policies for listing, as compared to NYSE or NASDAQ. Some companies listed on AMEX are B & G Foods Holding Corp., Otelco Inc., etc.

For NASDAQ, trading is virtual or over the online network. Investors and stock traders deal and interact with each other virtually to buy and sell stocks over the Internet. Thus, a trading floor is non-existent for NASDAQ. NASDAQ lists "tech giants," such as Microsoft, Cisco, and Oracle. It is also known as a "dealer's market" as here, trading does not happen through auction but through a dealer who interacts with the buyers and sellers. The maximum listing fee for the exchange is $ 150,000 and the maximum continual yearly listing fee is $ 60,000. Thus, the stocks listed here are more "growth-oriented."

Forex Cheat (How You Can Cheat Forex Safely and Legally With Autopilot Software)

The global forex market is the largest financial market in the world. The daily transaction in the market totals up to 3.5 trillion USD. There are some popular myths about forex trading. The first one is the process is extremely difficult and complex, and you need to have mathematical and analytical brain to earn some profit from your investment. The second is you need to personally attend the trades to maximize your chances of profit. All these advise you can simply ignore if you have a forex autopilot software like Forex Tracer, Forex Raptor, or Forex Killer with you. These forex robots can be expressed as your legitimate and completely ethical means to earn money from forex.

Before going into the details of earning we must know how these forex autopilots work and why the profit you earn using them is legally safe. These autopilots in most of the cases are designed by forex consultants and experts who have years of experience and exclusive personalized trade secrets for their forex trading. With slightest of the market movement or a tiniest dip in the currency analysis curve they can sniff what is coming up. After a while, they become experts in predicting and speculating market trends that come true in majority of the incidents. Their experience when combined with software programs turn out to be the deadly combination, which works behind the forex autopilots. So, when you buy the software you trade just like the expert trader who designed the system and therefore there is nothing unlawful about its use.

As the systems are highly mechanical in nature, they can repeat the trades again and again without feeling tired like a human trader. The software can not take wrong decision as well, if not forced to do so. It can take on multiple trades in the same market or in more than one trading markets. You can set the software work as a day trader or a scalper, or a carry-on trader in the forex spot market. In other words, your forex autopilot software is free to take independent decision as you ask it to do. You need to keep the software running and attend your own preoccupations. The automatic program will select the trade to enter, when to enter, when to exit, and how to place the stop-loss limits. Depending on the setting the software will freely review the market situation to locate upcoming trends to alter the strategy.

The situation is even more in your favor if you have previous trading experience. Then you can ask your autopilot how you want it to trade, and it does it, mechanically, without ever failing because of human psychological factors. The more you stay away from your terminal the better the chances are for you. You can test different parameters like different currency pairs and trading strategies to finalize the winning combination and lawfully earn huge profit from your forex trading.

How to Use PE, PS, and PB Ratios to Value a Stock

In a previous article, I discussed the traditional and "textbook" method for valuing a stock, along with a few modifications to smooth out the inherent bumpiness in levels of cash flow. In this article, we'll take a look at another common way of valuing a stock, using statistical multiples of a company's financial metrics, such as earnings, net assets, and sales.

There are basically three statistical multiples that can be used in this kind of analysis: the price-to-sales (P / S) ratio, price-to-book (P / B) ratio, and price-to-earnings (P / E) ratio. All of them are used the same way in doing a valuation, so let's first describe the method and then discuss a bit about when to use the three different multiples, then go through an example.

The Multiple-Based Method
Valuing a stock in a multiple-based manner is simple to understand, but takes some work to get the parameters. In a nutshell, the object here is to come up with a reasonable "target multiple" that you believe the stock should reasonably trade at, given growth prospects, competitive position, and so forth. To come up with this "target multiple", there are a few things you should consider:

1) What is the stock's average historical multiple (P / E ratio, P / S ratio, etc.)? You should at least take a 5-year period, and preferably 10 years. This gives you an idea of ​​the multiple in both bull and bear markets.

2) What are average multiples for competitors? How wide is the variance against the stock being investigated, and why?

3) Is the range of high and low values ​​very wide, or very narrow?

4) What are the future prospects for the stock? If they are better than in the past, the "target multiple" could be set higher than historical norms. If they are not as good, the "target multiple" should be lower (sometimes substantially lower). Do not forget to consider potential competition when thinking about future prospects!

Once you have come up with a reasonable "target multiple", the rest is fairly easy. First, take current year estimates for revenue and / or earnings and multiply the target multiple against them to get a target market capitalization. Then you divide that by the share count, optionally adjusting it for dilution based on past trends and any announced stock buyback programs. This gives you a "reasonable price" valuation, from which you want to buy 20% or more under for a margin of safety.

If this is confusing, the example later in the article should help clear things up.

When to Use the Different Multiples

Each of the different multiples has their advantage in certain situations:

P / E ratio: The P / E is probably the most common multiple to use. However, I would adjust this to be the price-to-operating earnings ratio instead, where operating earnings in this case is defined as earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT – include depreciation and amortization). The reason for this is to smooth out one-time events that skew the bottom line earnings per share value from time to time. P / EBIT works well for profitable companies with relatively stable levels of sales and margins. It does * not * work at all for unprofitable companies, and does not work well for asset-based firms (banks, insurance companies) or heavy cyclicals.

P / B ratio: The price- to-book ratio is most useful for asset-based firms, particularly banks and insurance companies. Earnings are often unpredictable due to interest spreads and are full of more assumptions than basic product and service firms when you consider such nebulous accounting items as loan loss provisions. However, assets such as deposits and loans are relatively stable (2008-09 aside), and so book value is generally what they are valued on. On the other hand, book value does not mean much for "new economy" businesses like software and service firms, where the primary assets is the collective intellect of employees.

P / S ratio: Price-to -sales is a useful ratio across the board, but probably most valuable for valuing currently unprofitable companies. These firms have no earnings from which to use P / E, but comparing P / S ratio against historical norms and competitors could help give an idea of ​​a reasonable price for the stock.

A Simple Example

To illustrate, let's look at Lockheed Martin (LMT).

From doing some basic research, we know that Lockheed Martin is a established firm with an excellent competitive position in what has been a relatively stable industry, defense contracting. Furthermore, Lockheed has a long track record of profitability. We also know the firm is obviously not an asset-based business, so we'll go with the P / EBIT ratio.

Looking over the past 5 years of price and earnings data (which takes some spreadsheet work), I determine that Lockheed's average P / EBIT ratio over that period has been about 9.3. Now I consider the circumstances over the past 5 years and see that Lockheed has worked through some strong defense demand years in 2006 and 2007, followed by some significant political shakeups and a down market in 2008 and 2009, followed by a market rebound but problems with the important F-35 program early this year. Given the expected slow near-term growth of defense department spending, I conservatively theorize that 8.8 is probably a reasonable "target multiple" to use for this stock in the near term.

Once this multiple is determined, finding the reasonable price is pretty easy:

2010 revenue estimate is $ 46.95 billion, which would be a 4% increase from 2009. Earnings per share estimate is 7.27, which would be a 6.5% decline from 2009, and represents a 6% net margin. From these figures and empirical data, I estimate a 2010 EBIT of $ 4.46 billion (9.5% operating margin).

Now, I simply apply my 8.8 multiple to $ 4.6 billion to get a target market cap of $ 40.5 billion.

Lastly, we need to divide that by shares outstanding to get a target share price. Lockheed currently has 381.9 million shares outstanding, but usually buys back 2-5% a year. I'll split the difference on this and assume share count will decline 2.5% this year, leaving an end-of-year count of 379.18 million.

Dividing $ 40.5 billion by 378.18 million gives me a target share price of $ 107 about. Interestingly, this is close to the discounted free cash flow valuation of $ 109. So, in both cases, I've used reasonable estimates and determined that the stock looks undervalued. Using my 20% minimum "margin of safety", I would only consider buying Lockheed at share prices of $ 85 and under.

Wrapping It Up

Obviously, you can easily plug the price-to-sales or price-to-book ratio in and, using the proper financial values, do a similar multiple-based valuation. This kind of stock valuation makes a bit more sense to most people, and accounts for market-based factors like the differing multiple ranges for different industries. However, one must be careful and consider how the future may differ from the past when estimating a "target multiple". Use your head and try to avoid using multiples that are significantly higher than historical market averages.

Business Analyst Finance Domain Sample Resume

This is just a sample Business Analyst resume for freshers as well as for experienced job seekers in Finance domain of business analyst or system analyst. While this is only a sample resume, please use this only for reference purpose, do not copy the same client names or job duties for your own purpose. Always make your own resume with genuine experience.

Name: Justin Megha


your email here.

Business Analyst, Business Systems Analyst


  • Accomplished in Business Analysis, System Analysis, Quality Analysis and Project Management with extensive experience in business products, operations and Information Technology on the capital markets space specializing in Finance such as Trading, Fixed Income, Equities, Bonds, Derivatives (Swaps, Options, etc ) and Mortgage with sound knowledge of broad range of financial instruments.
  • Over 11+ Years of proven track record as value-adding, delivery-loaded project hardened professional with hands-on expertise spanning in System Analysis, Architecting Financial applications, Data warehousing, Data Migrations, Data Processing, ERP applications, SOX Implementation and Process Compliance Projects.
  • Accomplishments in analysis of large-scale business systems, Project Charters, Business Requirement Documents, Business Overview Documents, Authoring Narrative Use Cases, Functional Specifications, and Technical Specifications, data warehousing, reporting and testing plans.
  • Expertise in creating UML based Modelling views like Activity / Use Case / Data Flow / Business Flow / Navigational Flow / Wire Frame diagrams using Rational Products & MS Visio.
  • Proficient as long time liaison between business and technology with competence in Full Life Cycle of System (SLC) development with Waterfall, Agile, RUP methodology, IT Auditing and SOX Concepts as well as broad cross-functional experiences leveraging multiple frameworks.
  • Extensively worked with the On-site and Off-shore Quality Assurance Groups by assisting the QA team to perform Black Box / GUI testing / Functionality / Regression / System / Unit / Stress / Performance / UAT's.
  • Facilitated change management across entire process from project conceptualization to testing through project delivery, Software Development & Implementation Management in diverse business & technical environments, with demonstrated leadership abilities.


  • Post Graduate Diploma (in Business Administration) , USA
  • Master's Degree (in Computer Applications) ,
  • Bachelor's Degree (in Commerce),


Documentation Tools UML, MS Office (Word , Excel, Power Point, Project), MS Visio, Erwin

SDLC Methodologies Waterfall, Iterative, Rational Unified Process (RUP), Spiral, Agile

Modeling Tools UML, MS Visio, Erwin , Power Designer, Metastrom Provision

Reporting Tools Business Objects X IR2, Crystal Reports, MS Office Suite

QA Tools Quality Center, Test Director, Win Runner, Load Runner, QTP, Rational Requisite Pro, Bugzilla, Clear Quest

Languages Java, VB, SQL, HTML , XML, UML, ASP, JSP

Databases & OS MS SQL Server, Oracle 10g, DB2, MS Access on Windows XP / 2000, Unix

Version Control Rational Clear Case, Visual Source Safe


SERVICE MASTER, Memphis, TN June 08 – Till Date

Senior Business Analyst

Terminix has approximately 800 customer service agents that reside in our branches in addition to approximately 150 agents in a centralized call center in Memphis, TN. Terminix customer service agents receive approximately 25 million calls from customers each year. Many of these customer's questions are not answered or their problems are not resolved on the first call. Currently these agents use an AS / 400 based custom developed system called Mission to answer customer inquiries into branches and the Customer Communication Center. Mission – Terminix's operation system – provides functionality for sales, field service (routing & scheduling, work order management), accounts receivable, and payroll. This system is designed modularly and is difficult to navigate for customer service agents needing to assist the customer quickly and knowledgeably. The amount of effort and time needed to train a customer service representative using the Mission system is high. This combined with low agent and customer retention is costly.

Customer Service Console enables Customer Service Associates to provide consistent, enhanced service experience, support to the Customers across the Organization. CSC is aimed at providing easy navigation, easy learning process, reduced call time and first call resolution.


  • Assisted in creating Project Plan, Road Map. Designed Requirements Planning and Management document.
  • Performed Enterprise Analysis and actively participated in buying Tool Licenses.
  • Identified subject-matter experts and drove the requirements gathering process through approval of the documents that convey their needs to management, developers, and quality assurance team.
  • Performed technical project consultation, initiation, collection and documentation of client business and functional requirements, solution alternatives, functional design, testing and implementation support.
  • Requirements Elicitation, Analysis, Communication, and Validation according to Six Sigma Standards.
  • Captured Business Process Flows and Reengineered Process to achieve maximum outputs.
  • Captured As-Is Process, designed TO-BE Process and performed Gap Analysis
  • Developed and updated functional use cases and conducted business process modeling (PROVISION) to explain business requirements to development and QA teams.
  • Created Business Requirements Documents, Functional and Software Requirements Specification Documents.
  • Performed Requirements Elicitation through Use Cases, one to one meetings, Affinity Exercises, SIPOC's.
  • Gathered and documented Use Cases, Business Rules, created and maintained Requirements / Test Traceability Matrices.

Client: The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, Parsippany, NJ May '2007 – Oct' 2007

Profile: Sr. Financial Business Analyst / Systems Analyst.

Project Profile (1): D & B is the world's leading source of commercial information and insight on businesses. The Point of Arrival Project and the Data Maintenance (DM) Project are the future applications of the company that the company would transit into, providing an effective method & efficient report generation system for D & B's clients to be able purchase reports about companies they are trying to do business.

Project Profile (2): The overall purpose of this project was building a Self Awareness System (SAS) for the business community for buying SAS products and a Payment system was built for SAS. The system would provide certain combination of products (reports) for Self Monitoring report as a foundation for managing a company's credit.


  • Conducted GAP Analysis and documented the current state and future state, after understanding the Vision from the Business Group and the Technology Group.
  • Conducted interviews with Process Owners, Administrators and Functional Heads to gather audit-related information and facilitated meetings to explain the impacts and effects of SOX compliance.
  • Played an active and lead role in gathering, analyzing and documenting the Business Requirements, the business rules and Technical Requirements from the Business Group and the Technological Group.
  • Co – Authored and prepared Graphical depictions of Narrative Use Cases, created UML Models such as Use Case Diagrams, Activity Diagrams and Flow Diagrams using MS Visio throughout the Agile methodology
  • Documented the Business Requirement Document to get a better understanding of client's business processes of both the projects using the Agile methodology.
  • Facilitating JRP and JAD sessions, brain storming sessions with the Business Group and the Technology Group.
  • Documented the Requirement traceability matrix (RTM) and conducted UML Modelling such as creating Activity Diagrams, Flow Diagrams using MS Visio. Analysed test data to detect significant findings and recommended corrective measures
  • Co-Managed the Change Control process for the entire project as a whole by facilitating group meetings, one-on-one interview sessions and email correspondence with work stream owners to discuss the impact of Change Request on the project.
  • Worked with the Project Lead in setting realistic project expectations and in evaluating the impact of changes on the organization and plans accordingly and conducted project related presentations.
  • Co-oordinated with the off shore QA Team members to explain and develop the Test Plans, Test cases, Test and Evaluation strategy and methods for unit testing, functional testing and usability testing

Environment: Windows XP / 2000, SOX , Sharepoint, SQL, MS Visio, Oracle, MS Office Suite, Mercury ITG, Mercury Quality Center, XML, XHTML, Java, J2EE.

GATEWAY COMPUTERS, Irvine, CA, Jan 06 – Mar 07

Business Analyst

At Gateway, a Leading Computer, Laptop and Accessory Manufacturer, was involved in two projects,

Order Capture Application: Objective of this Project is to Develop Various Mediums of Sales with a Centralized Catalog. This project involves wide exposure towards Requirement Analysis, Creating, Executing and Maintaining of Test plans and Test Cases. Mentored and trained staff about Tech Guide & Company Standards; Gateway reporting system: was developed with Business Objects running against Oracle data warehouse with Sales, Inventory, and HR Data Marts. This DW serves the different needs of Sales Personnel and Management. Involved in the development of it utilized Full Client reports and Web Intelligence to deliver analytics to the Contract Administration group and Pricing groups. Reporting data mart included Wholesaler Sales, Contract Sales and Rebates data.


  • Product Manager for Enterprise Level Order Entry Systems – Phone, B2B, Gateway.com and Cataloging System.
  • Modeled the Sales Order Entry process to eliminate bottleneck process steps using ERWIN.
  • Adhered and practiced RUP for implementing software development life cycle.
  • Gathered Requirements from different sources like Stakeholders, Documentation, Corporate Goals, Existing Systems, and Subject Matter Experts by conducting Workshops, Interviews, Use Cases, Prototypes, Reading Documents, Market Analysis, Observations
  • Created Functional Requirement Specification documents – which include UMLUse case diagrams, Scenarios, activity, work Flow diagrams and data mapping. Process and Data modeling with MS VISIO.
  • Worked with Technical Team to create Business Services (Web Services) that Application could leverage using SOA, to create System Architecture and CDM for common order platform.
  • Designed Payment Authorization (Credit Card, Net Terms, and Pay Pal) for the transaction / order entry systems.
  • Implemented A / B Testing, Customer Feedback Functionality to Gateway.com
  • Worked with the DW, ETL teams to create Order entry systems Business Objects reports. (Full Client, Web I)
  • Worked in a cross functional team of Business, Architects and Developers to implement new features.
  • Program Managed Enterprise Order Entry Systems – Development and Deployment Schedule.
  • Developed and maintained User Manuals, Application Documentation Manual, on Share Point tool.
  • Created Test Plansand Test Strategies to define the Objective and Approach of testing.
  • Used Quality Center to track and report system defects and bug fixes. Written modification requests for the bugs in the application and helped developers to track and resolve the problems.
  • Developed and Executed Manual, Automated Functional, GUI, Regression, UAT Test cases using QTP.
  • Gathered, documented and executed Requirements-based, Business process (workflow / user scenario), Data driven test cases for User Acceptance Testing.
  • Created Test Matrix, Used Quality Center for Test Management, track & report system defects and bug fixes.
  • Performed Load, stress Testing's & Analyzed Performance, Response Times. Designed approach, developed visual scripts in order to test client & server side performance under various conditions to identify bottlenecks.
  • Created / developed SQL Queries (TOAD) with several parameters for Backend / DB testing
  • Conducted meetings for project status, issue identification, and parent task review, Progress Reporting.


Business Analyst

The primary objective of this project is to replace the existing Internal Facing Client / Server Applications with a Web enabled Application System, which can be used across all the Business Channels. This project involves wide exposure towards Requirement Analysis, Creating, Executing and Maintaining of Test plans and Test Cases. Demands understanding and testing of Data Warehouse and Data Marts, thorough knowledge of ETL and Reporting, Enhancement of the Legacy System covered all of the business requirements related to Valuations from maintaining the panel of appraisers to ordering, receiving, and reviewing the valuations.


  • Gathered Analyzed, Validated, and Managed and documented the stated Requirements. Interacted with users for verifying requirements, managing change control process, updating existing documentation.
  • Created Functional Requirement Specification documents – that include UML Use case diagrams, scenarios, activity diagrams and data mapping. Provided End User Consulting on Functionality and Business Process.
  • Acted as a client liaison to review priorities and manage the overall client queue. Provided consultation services to clients, technicians and internal departments on basic to intricate functions of the applications.
  • Identified business directions & objectives that may influence the required data and application architectures.
  • Defined, prioritized business requirements, Determine which business subject areas provide the most needed information; prioritize and sequence implementation projects accordingly.
  • Provide relevant test scenarios for the testing team. Work with test team to develop system integration test scripts and ensure the testing results correspond to the business expectations.
  • Used Test Director, QTP, Load Runner for Test management, Functional, GUI, Performance, Stress Testing
  • Perform Data Validation, Data Integration and Backend / DB testing using SQL Queries manually.
  • Created Test input requirements and prepared the test data for data driven testing.
  • Mentored, trained staff about Tech Guide & Company Standards. Set-up and Coordinate Onsite offshore teams, Conduct Knowledge Transfer sessions to the offshore team.

Lloyds Bank, UK Aug 03 – Sept 04
Business Analyst
Lloyds TSB is leader in Business, Personal and Corporate Banking. Noted financial provider for millions of customers with the financial resources to meet and manage their credit needs and to achieve their financial goals. The Project involves an applicant Information System, Loan Appraisal and Loan Sanction, Legal, Disbursements, Accounts, MIS and Report Modules of a Housing Finance System and Enhancements for their Internet Banking.


  • Translated stakeholder requirements into various documentation deliverables such as functional specifications, use cases, workflow / process diagrams, data flow / data model diagrams.
  • Produced functional specifications and led weekly meetings with developers and business units to discuss outstanding technical issues and deadlines that had to be met.
  • Coordinated project activities between clients and internal groups and information technology, including project portfolio management and project pipeline planning.
  • Provided functional expertise to developers during the technical design and construction phases of the project.
    • Documented and analyzed business workflows and processes. Present the studies to the client for approval
    • Participated in Universe development – planning, designing, Building, distribution, and maintenance phases.
    • Designed and developed Universes by defining Joins, Cardinalities between the tables.
      • Created UML use case, activity diagrams for the interaction between report analyst and the reporting systems.
      • Successfully implemented BPR and achieved improved Performance, Reduced Time and Cost.
      • Developed test plans and scripts; performed client testing for routine to complex processes to ensure proper system functioning.
      • Worked closely with UAT Testers and End Users during system validation, User Acceptance Testing to expose functionality / business logic problems that unit testing and system testing have missed out.
        • Participated in Integration, System, Regression, Performance, and UAT – Using TD, WR, Load Runner
        • Participated in defect review meetings with the team members. Worked closely with the project manager to record, track, prioritize and close bugs. Used CVS to maintain versions between various stages of SDLC.

Client: AG Edwards, St. Louis, MO May '2005 – Feb ' 2006

Profile: Sr. Business Analyst / System Analyst

Project Profile: AG Edwards is a full service Trading based brokerage firm in Internet-based futures, options and forex brokerage. This site allows Users (Financial Representative) to trade online. The main features of this site were: Users can open new account online to trade equitiies, bonds, derivatives and forex with the Trading system using DTCC's applications as a Clearing House agent. The user will get real-time streaming quotes for the currency pairs they selected, their current position in the forex market, summary of work orders, payments and current money balances, P & L Accounts and available trading power, all continuously updating in real time via live quotes. The site also facilitates users to Place, Change and Cancel an Entry Order, Placing a Market Order, Place / Modify / Delete / Close a Stop Loss Limit on an Open Position.


  • Gathered Business requirements pertaining to Trading, equities and Fixed Incomes like bonds, converted the same into functional requirements by implementing the RUP methodology and authored the same in Business Requirement Document (BRD).
  • Designed and developed all Narrative Use Cases and conducted UML modeling like created Use Case Diagrams, Process Flow Diagrams and Activity Diagrams MS Visio using.
  • Implemented the entire Rational Unified Process (RUP) methodology of application development with its various workflows, artifacts and activities. Developed business process models in RUP to document existing and future business processes. Established a business Analysis methodology around the Rational Unified Process.
  • Analyzed user requirements, attended Change Request meetings to document changes and implemented procedures to test changes.
  • Assisted in developing project timelines / deliverables / strategies for effective project management.
  • Evaluated existing practices of storing and handling important financial data for compliance.
  • Involved in developing the test strategy and assisted in developed Test scenarios, test conditions and test cases
  • Partnered with the technical areas in the research, resolution of system and User Acceptance Testing (UAT).

Environment: Windows XP / 2000 / NT , SOX, MS Office Suite, SQL, MS SQL Server, XML, HTML, Java, J2EE, JSP, Oracle, WinRunner, Test Director

Iron Condor Option Trading – Advantages and Disadvantages

Iron Condor Briefly Defined

An Iron Condor is an option spread trade constructed from two other separate spread trades – a bull put spread and a bear call spread.

It is essentially a bet that a stock will not trade either above or below specified levels during a set period of time. If the stock closes at expiration within that range, the trader retains his or her maximum gain, which can be very lucrative on a ROI basis and for such a short period of time.

Like any option trading strategy, there are pros and cons to trading the iron condor.


  1. Double Premium. By far, the biggest advantage is the opportunity to collect twice as much premium as you would setting up only a single bull put spread or single bear call spread position.
  2. A Single Safer Premium. You could also take a more conservative approach and choose to receive the same total net premium available on either a single bull put or bear call spread position. You theoretically take less risk (by setting the strike prices farther away from the current share price) and receive the same amount of money.
  3. Guaranteed Maximum Gains on One-Half the Trade. Because the stock can not simultaneously close both below the bull put strike price and above the bear call strike price, one of those legs is guaranteed to expire worthless, ensuring your maximum profits on that portion of the trade.
  4. Double Leverage at Half the Price. Along the same lines, because the stock can not close both below the low end of the range and above the high end of the range, an options-friendly broker will only require you to collateralize half the trade. Because you can not sustain a loss on both the bull put and the bear call, your maintenance requirement (for options-friendly brokers) will be for the equivalent of just one of those trades.
  5. Flexibility. Option trading, by its very nature, is flexible. That is also true with the iron condor. In the case of a big move in the share price of a stock on which you've constructed an iron condor, the underwater short option can be bought back for a loss and the corresponding long option allowed to remain open. If the stock continues its directional move, the long option will increase in value, offsetting and even potentially reversing the loss.


  1. Two Ways to Lose Instead of One. Because you're betting that a stock will not breach a specific trading level in either direction, you have essentially doubled the ways in which you can lose money.
  2. Big Potential Losses. While your maximum potential gains on a ROI basis can be very lucrative, your maximum potential losses on a ROI basis can be much larger. If the stock makes a large, unexpected move in either direction, you will most likely sustain significant losses of the capital at risk.
  3. Invites Over Leveraging. Because the required capital to set up a single iron condor is so little (the difference between the strike prices within either the bull put or bear call spread multiplied by 100 less the net premium received), and because that number will not change throughout the holding period, it's very easy to set up more iron condor positions than may be prudent.

Iron condors can produce some tremendous rates of return. But they are definitely not without risk. Investors are advised to conduct additional and thorough research and consider all the risks involved before employing this strategy.

Options Trading – 5 Interesting Facts About Stock Options

When people refer to options trading they could actually be referring to a number of different securities. Options are traded on all types of securities (forex, commodities, stocks, etc.), but for the purpose of this article I will only be referring to stock options.

Here are 5 interesting facts about options trading that most traders never realize:

Fact 1: Most people never know who actually creates stock options. Heck, I traded for years before I found out the Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) issues all listed options at the CBOE as well as other US option exchanges.

The OCC ensures the options market stays liquid and that there is always a buyer and seller for every transaction. Another party that helps facilitate this liquidity are Market Makers.

Fact 2: Sometimes it's not another options trader who buys or sells your stock option from / to you. Market Makers are exchange members who help keep the market liquid by using their own money to buy and sell options.

So when there is an absence of public buy and sell orders the Market Makers step in and put up their own capital to ensure the trade can be executed.

Fact 3: The price options are quoted at is their per share price, but they are only actually sold in 100 share batches. So what that means is that whatever price you see quoted has to be multiplied by 100 to get the true cost of that option.

People who are unaware of how stock options work may look at a quoted price of $ 2 and then get excited thinking they can buy that stock option for $ 2 when in all actuality it will cost them $ 200.

Fact 4: Stock options do NOT expire the third Friday of the month of their expiration. They actually expire the third Saturday of the month of expiration, but for trading purposes people usually state that they expire on Friday (since the market is not open on Saturday).

Fact 5: When you purchase a stock option you're not purchasing ownership in anything like you are with stocks. The only thing you are purchasing is a contract that grants you certain "rights".

In the case of a Call option you are purchasing the "right" to buy a stock and with Put options you are purchasing the "right" to sell a stock.

Options trading can be confusing at first, but take your time, keep learning and eventually things will start to come together.

BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) – Online Trading System

Gone are the days when you needed a broker to help you buy and sell stocks, shares and make stock market investments. Through online investment you can buy and sell shares with just a few clicks of the mouse. The economic and capital market in India can not exist without a stock exchange; there are two main stock exchanges where transactions take place; the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE). While all the major transactions take place here, there are over 20 different stock exchanges located across the country.

Online trading in India has changed the meaning of trading in the country. With no requirement for a broker, trading has become easier, faster and far more convenient than earlier days. Some of the major financial products and services offered through online trading are mutual funds, equities, general insurance, life insurance, share trading, portfolio management, commodities trading and financial planning. In online trading, the investor has to pay less brokerage as compare to offline trading. There is no need for any paperwork through online investing and the need for a middle man is eliminated. All the stock accounts are stored in a Demat account where they can be viewed.

BSE online trading was established in 1995 and is the first exchange to be set up in Asia. It has the largest number of listed companies in the world and currently has 4937 companies listed on the Exchange with over 7,700 traded instruments.

The only thing that an investor requires for online trading through BSE is an online trading account. The trading can then be done within the trading hours from any location in the world. In fact, BSE has replaced the open cry system with automated trading. Open cry system is a common method of communication between the investors at a stock exchange where they shout and use hand gestures to communicate and transfer information about buy and sell orders. It usually takes place on the 'pit' area of ​​the trading floor and involves a lot of face to face interaction. However, with the use of electronic trading systems trading is easier, faster and cheaper; and is less prone to manipulation by market makers and brokers / dealers.

The BSE provides an efficient and transparent market for trading in debt instruments, equity and derivatives. This is performed through a system known as BOLT – BSE's Online Trading System.

In the stock exchange, a key index is used to keep track of the important or the most traded stocks in the exchange. The indice used at the BSE while trading is the SENSEX and is displayed in all major portals, newspapers and magazines. It is India's first stock market index that enjoys an iconic stature and is tracked worldwide. It is conducted on a free-float methodology and is sensitive to market sentiments and realities.

There are also indices such as BSE small cap, BSE mid cap and BSE500 to take care of medium and small companies. Furthermore, India index services and Products Limited has indices such as CNX Nifty Junior, S & P CNX Nifty, CNX 100, S & P CNX 500 and CNX Mid cap. The BSE offers 22 indices to suit a multiplicity of needs, inclusive of 12 sectorial indices. For example, the BSE PSU Index tracks the performance of the listed PSY companies and also helps the Central Government to monitor its wealth on the bourses.

The BSE has become a completely 'corporatised and demutualized stock exchange' through the use of online exchanges. With partners such as Deutsche Borse (DB) and Singapore Stock Exchange (SGX) it has a global competitive force. BSE has strategic relationships in almost every part of the world- Europe (DB)), Hong Kong (ETF) and Asia (SGX), prominent public sector undertakings such as State Bank of India, Bank of India, Life Insurance Corporation of India and Central Bank of India.

Benefits of BSE trading system in India for share brokers or newbies

There are a number of attractive services to empower investors and facilitate smooth transactions. Some of these include:

1) Investor Services: A range of services are offered to investors. Being the first exchange in the country to provide an amount of INR 1 million towards the investor protection fund, the BSE had launched a nationwide investor awareness program; 'Safe Investing in the Stock Market' under which there were 264 programmes which were conducted in over 359 cities in India.

2) BSE has an Online trading BOLT system: the online-Trading system (BOLT) facilitates on-line screen based trading in securities. Currently it operates 25,000 Trader Workstations which are located across 359 cities in the country.

3) The BSE has the world's first centralized exchange-based Internet trading system – BSEWEBX.com. This system helps the investors anywhere in the world to trade on the BSE platform.

4) The BSE has an online Surveillance system (BOSS) which monitors on a REAL-TIME basis the price movements, the volume positions and members' positions as well as real time measurement of default risk, generation of cross market alerts and market reconstruction.

5) The BSE has a training institute – known as the Bombay Stock Exchange Training Institute (popularly known as the acronym BTI) .The BTI imparts capital market training and certification; in collaboration with a number of reputed management institutes and universities. There are over 40 courses to choose from on different aspects of the capital market and the financial Bombay Stock Exchange market.

How Can Stay at Home Moms Make Money From Day Trading Stock Picks

Any stay at home mom who wants to make money online can avail themselves of the lucrative business opportunity of day trading stock picks which can easily help them to earn at least $ 500 a day without any need for advertising, warehousing and selling any physical goods or services . I know you desire to figure out how can stay at home moms make money online? Here is an easy-to-follow method you can use to make enough money to pay for your dream car or fund your children college education without sweat.

If you seriously want to make a regular and consistent income daily then day trading stock pick is what you should be doing now. Do not waste your time on those get rich quick schemes you see around. This is how you are going to be making money online from today. Imagine yourself sitting in front of your home PC or laptop on a cool Monday morning with your glass of orange juice beside you. The stock market opens in 25 minutes and you put on your PC or laptop. You instruct your stock trading robot to scan the database of penny stocks and after some minutes, the robot beeps and alerts you of potential profit-pulling stocks you should trade.

This is the type of business recommended for every stay at home mom to make huge money online. On this typical Monday morning, your robot has given you an order to buy Stock A for $ 0.13 and you quickly buy 10,000 shares of Stock A for $ 1,300 and you log out within a period of 10 minutes and go about your daily household chores. The next morning, you log on again and the robot instructs you to sell Stock A for $ 0.46 and you quickly contact your online brokerage firm and you sell all 10,000 shares. Can you imagine the amount of money you have made? Get out your calculator out now! You have made $ 3,300 within a period of 24 hours.

This is the kind of situation you will be faced with from today if you decide to throw away all those difficult and time-wasting chores you call business. Join the number of successful British and American stay at home moms that have discovered this easy-to-do home based business.

Truth is, on the penny stock market, stocks swing in price very fast. You will observe that stocks trading at $ 0.12 today may skyrocket to $ 0.54 the next day. This kind of price movement is not unusual at all. It happens just like that every single day.

This is the best and easiest way every stay at home mom can make money online today. Day trading stock picks is one business you can not afford to allow to pass you by. In a very short time, with $ 500 flowing into your account every day, you will say good bye to all your money worries. Your dream car or dream home will be within your reach in less than 60 days!