They Created The Golden Age of Russian Literature

Pushkin set the stage for the great writers that would follow, the poet Mikhail Lermontov and the playwright and novelist Nikolai Gogol.

Lermontof was the poet of the Caucasus, which he made the scene of all his poems. His short life of twenty-six years was spent among those mountains; and he was, like Pushkin, killed in a duel, just as he was beginning to be recognized as a worthy successor to him. Byron was also his favorite model, whom he, unhappily, strongly resembled in character.

Lermontov wrote outspoken political verses attacking the hypocrisy and stupidity of the ruling class. He produced subjective poems that prefigure the psychological probings of later writers. In the Demon he imagines a malign figure who proclaims:

I am he, whose gaze destroys hope,

As soon as hope blooms;

I am he, whom nobody loves,

And everything that lives curses.

And he dwelled on the Russian’s ambivalent but stubborn love for their land. In a brief poem, “My Country”, Lermontov opens with: “I love my country, but that love is odd: My reason has no part in it at all!” and continues:

Ask me not why I love, but love I must

Her fields’ cold silences,

Her sombre forests swaying in a gust,

Her rivers at the flood like seas.

His most celebrated poem was “The Demon”; but he wrote many most picturesque and fascinating stanzas and short pieces, which are full of tenderness and melancholy. Though less harmonious and perfect than Pushkin’s, his verses give out sometimes a sadder ring. His prose is equal to his poetry, and many of his short sketches, illustrative of Caucasian life, possess a subtle charm.

Gogol loved his country equally, or said he did. He was a political conservative and a defender of the tsarist autocracy. But when he wrote, his fantastic imagination created a nightmare land, a sprawling, ugly, ramshackle place peopled by grotesques. His satiric play The Inspector General presents a hilariously inept group of petty officials in a provincial town. The mayor, Gogol says, is “a grafter” adept at quick switches from “servility to arrogance”; the judge, who also takes brides, “wheezes and huffs like an antique clock that hisses before it strikes the hour”; the postmaster opens everybody’s post; the Director of Charities neglects his patients – “stick some clean gowns on the patients”, the mayor tells him. “I don’t want them looking like chimney sweeps” – and the teachers and policemen are lunatics or drunks, or both.

But The Inspector General is outdone by Gogol’s great (and only) novel, Dead Souls (finished in 1842), which offers an unmatched rogues’ gallery of bizarre creatures. The plot is itself a mordant Gogolian joke. A swindler named Chichikov travels the countryside, buying dead serfs (or “souls”) from provincial landlords and, armed with the papers providing his ownership of these deceased workers, sells them to unsuspecting buyers as if they were alive. In the course of his dealings, Chichikov encounters what seems to be the entire rural population – landlords, innkeepers, serfs, coachmen, petty officials. Everyone is misshapen, physically and spiritually, in some way.

The great novelists of modern Russia have been encouraged by advice of the critic Bielinski, the only critic of his country really worthy of the name. In spite of his admiration for Pushkin, he points out many of the weak points of romanticism, and seems to fully realize the intellectual necessities of his time. The first sketches and tales of Gogol revealed to Bielinski the birth of new art. He declared the age of lyric poetry was past forever, and that the reign of Russian prose romance had begun. Everything has justified this great writer’s prophecy.

Since the time of Pushkin, their literature has undergone wonderful developments. The novelists no longer draw from outside sources, but from the natal soil, and it is they who will show us what a rich verdure can be produced from under those Arctic snows.

The Role of the Weird Sisters – An Analysis of the Vampire Women in Bram Stoker’s Dracula

The three vampire women who inhabit the more remote regions of Count Dracula’s castle are of great significance to the narrative. Stoker’s depiction of them could be considered to embody the very worst Victorian nightmares regarding womanhood. Jonathan Harker’s reactions after his encounter with them also convey late nineteenth-century anxieties concerning the feminization of men.

Female gender identities were narrowly defined in Victorian society. Women were generally considered to be of two types, either the doting wife and mother, or the fallen woman. The vampire women, or ‘weird sisters’, as Harker calls them – referencing the three witches from Macbeth – could be considered an exaggerated literary equivalent of these fallen women. With their “brilliant white teeth” (p.37) and “voluptuous lips” (p.37), they are portrayed as overtly sexual beings. Their appearance and behavior stand in stark contrast to that of Jonathan’s fiancĂ©e, the virtuous Mina, who he describes as having “naught in common” (p.53) with the vampire women.

During his seduction, Jonathan’s reactions to the weird sisters are decidedly ambivalent: “There was a deliberate voluptuousness which was both thrilling and repulsive” (p.38). He encounters them in a far-flung chamber of Castle Dracula whilst in an ambiguous state of consciousness, a common motif in Gothic literature: “I suppose I must have fallen asleep; I hope so, but I fear, for all that followed was startlingly real” (p.37). Viewed from within a Victorian context, Harker is portrayed in a somewhat feminized position, with the gender roles reversed, in that he is a man being seduced by women, when in nineteenth-century society men would be expected to assume the role of seducer.

It is arguable that the actions of the vampire women in their seduction of Harker represent newfound anxieties about the emergence of the New Woman. The New Woman was a type of woman who challenged the prevailing Victorian notions of womanhood. Although Mina could be considered a New Woman, with her financial independence gained from having a career before marriage, she discusses this class of women with disdain. Regarding attitudes to marriage, she states that “I suppose the New Woman won’t condescend in future to accept; she will do the proposing herself” (p.89). It would appear that in their seduction of Harker, the female vampires could be considered New Women in light of Mina’s remarks.

Within the context of Gothic literature, Stoker confronts several conventions, one of these being through the role of Jonathan Harker in Dracula’s castle. In eighteenth-century Gothic novels, such as Ann Radcliffe’s influential The Mysteries of Udolpho, it is a young woman – of a ‘tremulous sensitivity’ and much prone to fainting – who finds herself ensnared in a remote castle and at the mercy of male predators. In Dracula Stoker has subverted convention by having a male character in this role, a detail consolidated by Harker’s reaction to his grisly encounter with the vampire women: “the horror overcame me, and I sank down unconscious” (p.39). He is a man assuming the role typically occupied by women in Gothic narrative.

Mina’s role as a New Woman is supported further during her encounter with the weird sisters much later in the story. The vampire women are shown to beckon to Mina, referring to her as ‘sister’ in their invitation to join their ranks.

Jonathan’s “agony of delightful anticipation” (p.38) when being seduced by the vampires is echoed in Van Helsing’s own anxieties when staking the undead women. He also notes the women’s sexual appeal in similar tones to Harker: “She was so fair to look on, so radiantly beautiful, so exquisitely voluptuous”, (p.370). If Victorian masculinity could be undermined through the threat posed by sexually attractive women, then Van Helsing’s staking of the female vampires could be considered a reassertion of male patriarchy.

Currency Future Trading

If you have been investigating trading futures, you know it is an advanced form of speculation. It applies to a variety of markets including the commodities market and currency future trading. In basic terms, it is a situation in which a seller and a buyer both want to exchange a quantity of an item at a certain time, each believing that the deal will turn out in his favor when in actuality only one comes out ahead. This is similar to trading options, but with futures, there is an obligation to buy or sell the commodity or the currency. Novice investors should beware: currency future trading can be complicated and requires a lot of research and practice to be done well. However, once you get the hang of it, you can stand to make quite a bit of profit. The key is to know which direction the market is heading and to buy or sell accordingly.

Historically, this kind of trading began between farmers and commodity dealers. Farmers would consent to sell a fixed amount of their crops, and dealers would agree to buy those crops in advance. If the crop was bountiful, the farmers would end up with a better deal. In the case of a shortage, the dealers profited. Over time, investors with no vested interest in the actual crops themselves began to broker these contracts in hopes of turning a profit. As time passed, the futures market became what we know it as today.

Futures are similar to credit, since those who trade them do so with items or currency that does not yet exist. Buyers and sellers trust each other to provide the item as soon as it can be exchanged. Since deals are made beforehand, there is an element of mystery and chance. Only one party will benefit from the exchange.

It is not advisable to jump into this form of trading without significant research into market and price trends as well as a solid understanding of the item or currency being traded. Fundamental and technical analysis, or the full understanding of a way a product works, is absolutely necessary.

Whether you are interested in commodities or currency future trading, realize that it can be risky. If you're just starting out in the investment world, it might be something to put off until you've had a bit more real life experience. After you have a better understanding of market fluctuations and product trends, you'll have a better chance of profitable ventures. You could also talk with a trusted broker who could wisely invest your money in this type of venture.

Value Investing and Its Advantages

Value Investing is an investment strategy used by some of the country's more prominent investors, most notably Warren Buffett. The American Heritage Dictionary defines value as a fair price or return. For value investors, this definition is a key concept in choosing which investments are right for purchase at a given time. They are not just looking for stocks that are solid- but are undervalued.

Value investing is an approach to investing that singles out specific investments; stocks or bonds that are undervalued in relation to similar companies. That is not the same as cheap, however. An undervalued investment may still have a high share price in relation to other stocks in the same category. What is important is the relative value of the stock using tools such as the P / E ratio, price to book ratios, and other tools of fundamental analysis.

Fundamental analysis, as opposed to technical analysis, is not about timing the market, or following charts and graphs that attempt to predict what the price of a stock will do next. Fundamental analysis is about using the basics. How a company's financials stand, its credit ratings, and industry outlook are keys to this type of analysis. A stock's revenue and expenses, and its debt and assets all come into play.

One important point to remember when comparing quantitative items such as P / E ratios, is that companies of different sizes or in different industry categories will often have differing scales of what is a good value. What is cheap for a technology stock may not be cheap for a company that produces consumer goods.

For many investors who practice value investing, blue chip stocks are often a key ingredient in their portfolios. Blue chip stocks often epitomize what value investing is all about- companies that have a solid earnings history, strong financials, a history of dividends, and a sizeable market share. These companies become attractive to investors when the market price of the stocks falls enough to make it a bargain, or a value.

Value investing is not only based on purchasing good companies at low prices, but holding for the long term. These investments will generally pay solid dividends that allow investors to reap the benefits of not only market gain, but compound their growth with dividends. Because most brokerages have some sort of reinvestment program allowing investors the option of reinvesting dividends automatically, this compounding effect over time can create impressive returns.

Value investing is all about looking for stocks that are priced at a bargain for the overall value. The market price of a stock will often drop for a company based on recent news reports, economic reports, a CEO change, or other outside forces. However, if the company is stable with a long-term history of success, it may be a prime target for value investors to hold on to for the long term. Value investing offers the benefits of not only compounding through dividends, but the ability to purchase good companies for the long term, with a positive outlook, at a great price.

Mourning, Death and the Cypress Tree

Have you ever wondered why you often find cypress trees planted near cemeteries? Certainly they are beautiful trees. Unfortunately these evergreen trees have been associated with death and mourning for over two thousand years. The cypress has a sad history.

The ancient Greeks and Romans believed the cypress tree was the first tree the dead would see when they arrived to the Underworld. This tree was associated with death. It was a symbol of eternal death; because once the cypress tree was cut it would never grow again.

The ancient Greeks and Romans used the wood to make coffins. The ancient Egyptians also used the wood from the cypress tree to make wooden cases for the mummies and coffins. It was told the wood from this tree was not liable for insect attacks.

In the ancient world they believed the tree had a powerful protective force. The cypress was planted near graves to protect the deceased from evil powers. As the soul was considered to be immortal, it was quite important to protect the souls of the dead from wicked spells of potential revenge seekers.

Mourners at funerals of the ancient world would always carry branches of the cypress tree to show their grief. In mythology, the goddess of love named Aphrodite carried a branch from the tree to show she was in mourning when her beloved Andonis died.

The story of how the cypress tree became the tree of death is told in Greek and Roman mythology. It started with a young man named Cyparissus and the god Apollo. They were close friends, some say lovers. Apollo gave Cyparissus a beautiful stag. Cyparissus accidentally killed the stag. He was so devastated and full of remorse, he begged the gods to let his grief endure for all eternity. The gods grew tired of his weeping and granted him that last wish. The gods transformed Cyparissus into a cypress. This tree would always be associated with mourning and eternal death, but also of the immortal soul.

If this is getting too sad and gloomy, you may want to turn to Asia. In the West the tree represents mourning and death. In China the cypress tree symbolizes good health and a long life.

Analysis of Herbert J Gan’s "The Uses of Poverty"

In the article entitled “The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All,” sociologist Herbert J. Gans discusses the strange alliance between the poor and the wealthy in American society. He states that the underprivileged in essence have kept several vocations in existence such as social work, criminology, and journalism. These vocations serve the double pretense of aiding the less fortunate and protecting society from these same individuals. He compares his analogy with that of Richard K. Merton, who applied the functional analysis theology to explain the prolonged existence of the political machine in urban areas.

Mr. Merton’s reasoning was that the political machine continued to exist because it served several positive functions in society. Mr. Gans applies this same logic to the existence of poverty in a society that had so much material wealth and concluded that poverty had 13 functions in society that was beneficial to non-poor members. They include: making sure that the menial work tasks of society will be taken care of, the creation of jobs that provide aid for the poor, and the existence of the poor keeps the aristocracy busy with charitable works, thus demonstrating charity to the less fortunate and superiority over the elites who chose to spend their free time making more money. He also give several alternatives to poverty such as redistribution of the wealth in society, putting everyone on a more even playing field, but ultimately concluded that poverty will continue to exist because disturbing the unequal balance between the poor and the wealthy in society would prove to be dysfunctional for the affluent and that will not happen.

In a hierarchical society such as in America, there will always be someone on the low end of the totem pole.

Tracing the Origin of Ancient Sumerians

It is of considerable interest to trace where the ancient Sumerians emerged from because of their primary contribution to human civilization. It was suggested that Sumerians appeared in Southern Mesopotamia around five and half thousand years ago carrying with them the seeds of civilization. It was also suggested that they migrated from the west coast of India. The fact that they were not a local people is suggested by the fact that their language belongs to a completely different and isolated group. There are two further lines of investigation one may adopt to confirm this hypothesis. The first is to explore for other groups in India with a similar language and the second is to carry out a physical examination of the Sumerian skeletons as available at the present time to detect racial similarities.

In western India there are a number of tribal groups that have existed from ancient times. Today many live on the fringes of mainstream communities as exist in India today. The mainstream communities belong to either the Indo-Aryan or Dravidian linguistic groups. Sumerian does not belong to either. As regards the tribal, it is now fruitless to look for any similarities between Sumerian and present tribal languages in India because over thousands of years their original languages have disappeared because of the overwhelming influence of other languages. The western tribal communities of India now speak modified versions or mixtures of the mainstream languages. However, all is not lost because although the tribal in India such as kols and Bheels have been overly influenced, it is not so with some of their branches that migrated further east towards Australia in ancient times, and form a branch of the same human groups. One may then look for similarities between Sumerian and Austric languages. This study has in fact been already done and the consensus is a resounding, yes. The austric languages are indeed similar to ancient Sumerian. The similarities are so numerous and clear that they are beyond doubt or a result of any chance coincidence. (The Austric Origin of the Sumerian Language, Language Form, vol. 22, no.1-2, Jan.-Dec. 1996.)

Therefore now it may be said with confidence that ancient Sumerian is not a linguistic isolate. It belongs to the australoid/ austric group of languages. They belong to this group because the ancient tribal people of Indian west coast also belonged to the same group of people, and it is from here that they must have migrated to Mesopotamia. Both the Australoid and Austric type are found in India. There are clear reasons to rule out any other location for the Sumerian migration: Western India is geographically close to Southern Mesopotamia as compared to south East Asia and Australia and there are no know instances of civilization east of the Indus valley around five thousand years ago. Such evidence has been found in the Indus valley.

The second study concerns physical examination of Sumerian skulls. Buxton and Rice have found that of 26 Sumerian crania they examined 22 were Australoid or Austrics. Further According to Penniman who studied skulls from other Sumerian sites, the Australoid Eurafrican, Austric and Armenoid were the “racial” types associated with the Sumerians. Here is Penniman’s description of the Austric type found at Sumer:

“These people are of medium stature, with complexion and hair like those of the Eurafrican, to which race they are allied with dark eyes, and oval faces, broad noses, rather feeble jaws, and slight sinewy bodies.”

This description also closely describes the regal person seen on a famous clay tablet from the Indus Valley. This same tribe in an evolved version undoubtedly established the Indus civilization as well as the Sumerian one after the submergence of their coastal cities. In North-western India they would have encountered Neolithic people of Indo-European origin with which manpower they established the Indus cities. An analysis of skeletal remains from Indus valley confirms this mixture. Both the IndoSumerian-austric language must then have persisted side by side as in Mesopotamia with the official language of the rulers being IndoSumerian-austric. Just as in Mesopotamia, ancient Sumerian was replaced by the language of the majority(Akkadians) in the Indus valley it would have been replaced eventually by an Indo-Aryan language. At what precise moment in history this occurred is not certain but most probably the Sumerian language disappeared from India by 2000 BC. In this latter case there was no question of preserving it for ritual purposes either. This is because the IndoSumerian-Austric language never developed as a fully written language in India to inscribe full texts. In any case, a better Indo-Aryan language with its own full-fledged script soom emerged probably because of Hittite influences in the Indian sub-continent around that time.

Contribution of Armenians to ancient civilization

In the Indus valley from which the Sumerians emerged there were other tribes that lived in close proximity of the Austric Sumerians. These were prehistoric indo-Aryan tribes of an Armenian origin – followers of the God Ara. The indo Aryans were fair skinned and light haired. Hence the reason for the indo-Sumerians to label themselves as dark headed in comparison to the Ara people who were shining. Sumerians also began using the word Ara for fair and bright and eventually they labeled all indo-Aryan people as Ara or Arya. The word Armenian has its origin in AR-MA, i.e. the children of Ara and Ma the fertility Goddess.

Later indo-Aryan migrations of around 1500BC into the Indus regions were apparently of Hittite origin. Apparently, some intermarriage also took place between these indo-Sumerians and Armenians probably leading to a more vigorous community then would have been possible otherwise. A physical marriage also resulted in a marriage of the religious traditions of the Sumerian and Armenian tribes as well as the Sumerian language being influenced by Armenian. Such influences can be found by comparisons between the Armenian (or even Hungarian that emerged from ancient Armenian) and Sumerian language. Are was the Sun God and the roots of sun worship in the world appear to have an Aryan origin rather than a Sumerian one.

Archaeologists refer to Transcaucasus region, including modern Armenia, as the earliest known prehistoric culture in the area, carbon-dated to roughly 6000 – 4000 BC. A recently discovered tomb has been dated to 9000 BC. Another early culture in the Armenian Highland and surrounding areas, the Kura-Araxes culture, is assigned the period of ca. 4000 – 2200 BC. Armenians are one of the oldest Indo-European subgroups. Therefore, it is not surprising that from amongst the Aryans it was the Armenians who spread around the ancient world of Mesopatomia and Indus valley first. The Hittite Aryans that became more powerful than the Armenians by 1500 BC were close neighbors and racial cousins of the Armenians, at times clashing with them and at times co-existing, yet probably gaining form the interaction at all times.

Buxton and Rice have found that of 26 Sumerian crania they examined 22 were Australoid or Austrics and four armennoid. Further According to Penniman who studied skulls from other Sumerian sites, the Australoid Eurafrican, Austric and Armenoid were the “racial” types associated with the Sumerians. Certainly it cannot be confirmed without further investigation if the Sumerian-Armenian alliance took place on Sumerian or Indian soil. It is also not certain if it was a forced or voluntary one. The fair skinned Armenian ladies are likely to have regarded the dark broad nosed Sumerians as ugly. Nevertheless, it may be deduced that the earliest Sumerians who introduced civilization in our world were around 85% Austric and 15% Armenian Aryans.

It is surprising that one of the most significant contributions to mankind should come from the Austric/australoid races. Elsewhere their contribution has not been remarkable. However, apparently a small genetic change is all that is necessary for this achievement. Similar races have illustrated that this can happen elsewhere as well. An example of that is Angkor Vat of Cambodia that illustrates technical mastery on an unprecedented scale, noted for its architectural and artistic perfection, not to mention its sheer size, Angkor Vat is the most famous and no doubt the most remarkable of all of ancient temples with extraordinary architectural and artistic innovations, one of the grandest achievements of mankind.

Technical Analysis – 12 Important Characteristics Of Technical Analysis!

If one takes a close look at the trading world, it revolves entirely around “predictions”. Every trader or investor would like to have an inkling of the outcome (technical analysis) for a particular security or stock, before parting with his/her hard-earned money!

In fact, seasoned veterans are able to correctly predict the ups and downs of financial securities. That is how they make oodles of money!

But this “predicting ability” is absent in most people. Even experts can go wrong at times, forget novices to this community! Therefore, a new tool called “technical analysis” has come into the market to help out in such matters. Since the results of using it have proved favorable, more and more traders and investors are going in for it.

Let us examine all the characteristics of this new tool–

(1) The correct definition of technical analysis is “the skill of being able to predict a particular security in the financial market”.

(2) This type of analysis revolves around the actual movement of the market; this is not the case with fundamental analysis. Factors related to politics or economics are pushed aside, though they do have an impact on a market’s movement.

(3) It searches for patterns or trends that can recur in the future. When this knowledge becomes available, prediction of what will happen in the future becomes easy.

(4) Despite this analysis being quite reliable, it is advisable to go in for fundamental analysis also. A comparison between the results of both will give a double edge to accuracy.

(5) How is fundamental analysis different?

If a fundamental analysis is to be done about a particular company, it includes factors like–how money is being managed by the company, how its performance has been in the past and how stable the current government is regarding trading currency. Thus, this analysis probes the reasons for the market’s movement.

Technical analysis is only bothered with how the market is actually going to move. The company’s present or past performance, how it takes care of its money–all these are irrelevant!

(6) Anything that claims to be perfect, is naturally viewed with skepticism! So also this new tool, and its claims to being efficient and accurate! People wonder how past movements of the market can aid in predicting the future?

(7) Technical analysis will have to take the help of quite a few indicators for predicting the future of financial securities, such as–volatility indicators, price change indicators, strength indicators, and so on.

(8) Just indicators are not enough, some type of software is also necessary for the purpose of monitoring the results. The software should have these features–real time data streaming, zoom features to be able to view the changes clearly and charts to base predictions on, among others.

(9) There is plenty of software available in the market, but it is advisable to choose one that studies how a particular security has performed in the past and predicts its future accurately.

(10) How are market patterns detected?

Each day, the opening price for a particular security, its highest price for the day, the lowest price for the day, and its closing price at the end of the day–have to be taken into consideration. Daily data collection leads to the setting of a pattern for the future.

(11) The most important thing to remember is tha no technical analysis can be 100% successful in its predictions, despite the best software in place. This type of tool is only meant to serve the purpose of a guide.

(12) Finally, whatever be the software, whatever be the technical analysis, the ultimate decision-maker is “the person”! Yes, this tool with its software gives very good guidelines, but instinct or a sixth sense should play a greater role if the trader or investor wants to achieve great success!

Was Eliot Ness an Alcoholic?

We all know Eliot Ness as the famous prohibition agent who got Al Capone, but some biographical accounts of his life indicate that he ended up an alcoholic. There have been various fictionalized versions of Ness throughout the years, although none touched on a drinking problem.

According to his biographer, Paul Heimel, who wrote Eliot Ness The True Story, the prohibition agent was not an alcoholic, according to his friends. He did like going out for a drink now and then and frequented famous nightspots. The biography dismisses the rumors of his alcoholism as just that, rumors.

In 1942, Eliot Ness was involved in an accident in the early hours of the morning. It was said that alcohol was a factor in the incident, although never proven. No one was seriously injured in the accident, but the incident cost Ness his career in Cleveland.

In books like Chasing Eliot Ness, the prohibition agent is seen drinking scotch after scotch and appears to have a drinking problem, although alcoholism is the least of his troubles in this book. There are scattered reports all over the internet and whether it is true or not depends upon which biographical account you read about the man behind the Untouchables.

Books like Torso, Nemesis and Chasing Eliot Ness fictionalize Ness, but none as much as The Untouchables by Oscar Fraley. Supposedly a biography of the prohibition agent, Fraley admitted to making the entire story up, according to the biography by Heimel.

Was Eliot Ness an alcoholic or not? He is listed on certain sites as an alcoholic, but there is no one alive today to say for sure. In the 1940s, when the stories came out, it was common for men to drink a few scotches, even during the day. It also makes for a good story to say that someone who fought so hard to keep liquor from Chicago would turn into a drunk. The only one who knows for sure is long gone. We have only fictionalized accounts of his life.

He was, however, a ladies man, according to the biography. This is most likely where the author of Chasing Eliot Ness got her inspiration.

Matthew Arnold’s Concept of ‘Sweetness and Light’

Matthew Arnold is a well- known figure of Victorian Age. This era is very glorious in the history of England because of It’s an exemplary progress in all branches of life. This age is very popular by its material prosperity, political awakening, democratic reforms, industrial and mechanical progress, scientific development, social unrest etc. He remained pessimist in the age due to a conflict between religion and science. He wrote a book ‘Culture & Anarchy’ with a view to reviving the values which were like honey in ancient Greek. He checks the values of his own time by the light of that culture. His work ‘Culture & Anarchy’ is a collection of a few separate essays; they show his fighting and struggle against material affluence.

Here, we analyze his concept about ‘Sweetness &Light’. In this treatise, his central focus and argument is on curiosity. It is defined as a liberal and intelligent eagerness about the things of mind or mental activities. According to him, the natal place of curiosity is a desire. It is desires that make some body pursue. The work of desire is to see the things as they are. If it is pursued by an intelligent person with an impartial understanding of mind, it becomes praise worthy. It bears a genuine scientific passion that is the right kind of curiosity. Such curiosity leads us to real culture. So, beyond the man of culture is curiosity.

Matthew Arnold views about a social aspect of culture. It comes out from the love of neighbor. In other words, it can be said that this aspect of culture gets birth from the desire for removing human errors and diminishing human misery. It is a person of culture who works in the society for its betterment. Such desire sees the things as they are, and the man of culture works impartially with eagerness. So, it gives birth to sweetness and light. He calls it a real culture that inspires a person to lean the world better and happier than he found it. Indeed, it occupies a genuine scientific passion and a balance and instruction of mind to fight against the diseased inclination of mind.

The author goes to the origin of culture that lies in the love of perfection. In other words, it can be called that culture is a study of perfection. In it two dominant desires work in harmony__the scientific passion for pure knowledge and moral and social passion for doing well. The man of culture should have the pursuit of pure knowledge with impartial desire or passion and prevail it in society for diminishing human miseries. Such miseries can be diminished by prevailing sweetness and light that is the job of a man of culture or a man of pursuing perfection. Such job is easy for a man of culture.

Culture is inclined to real reason and the will of God to prevail. It consists of the study and the pursuit of perfection. The direct inspiration for man to desire for perfection comes from religion. Arnold calls religion’ the voice of the deepest of human experience’. All the voices of human experience are available in art, science, poetry, philosophy and history which a man of true culture listens with a distinguished attention. All the above fields make man perfect internally, or its aim is total human perfection. The out ward expression of culture is shown in the general sweet expansion of thoughts and feelings, rich in dignity, wealth and happiness of human nature. The culture brings internal as well as external perfection of human. It quits all partialities and errors of man. Partialities and errors make anarchy in society.

Arnold finds sincere and genuine connection between culture and the idea of sweetness and light. His ideal man of culture is a Greek man called Euphuasis. Arnold borrowed the phrase ‘sweetness and light’ from Swift. The character of a man of culture is moulded by religion and poetry. The aim of religion is to make man perfect ethically, where as the poetry possesses the idea of beauty and of human nature perfect on all its sides. Culture has the power to prevail peace and satisfaction by killing our bestiality and drawing nearer to the world of spirituality with perfection. Indeed, religion fails to lead us to such perfection. He describes about religious organizations of his time in England that they seem to have failed morally. He submits example of Puritanism that is based on the impulse of man towards moral development and self -conquest. This perfection leads to the idea or impulse of narrowness and insufficiency. He jumps to such conclusion by judging the religious organizations in terms of sweetness and light.

Culture has perfection that is free from all kinds of stands against all the mischief men who have blind faith in machinery. In his opinion, the pursuit of perfection is the pursuit of sweetness and light. He who works for sweetness works in the end for light also; he who works for light works in the end for sweetness also. Those who work united for sweetness and light, work to make the reason and the will of God to prevail. Culture looks beyond machinery___ social, political and economic, beyond population, wealth and industry, beyond middle class liberalism and avoids all kinds of narrowness and hatred. Culture has one great opinion, the passion for sweetness and light.

Arnold shows pleasure to insist on the arousing of his contemporaries in all spheres of creative activities in art, literature and life. He insists that the light of culture must guide this national re-awakening to sweetness and light. Culture works differently, and it does not work with ready- made judgment and watch words. Its appeal is not confined to any one peculiar class in society. It deals with the best self that has been thought and known in the world current everywhere. Culture implies itself to make all men to live in an atmosphere of sweetness and light, where they may use ideas as it uses them itself freely.

The great men of culture believe in equality and broad mindedness. They are possessed by a passion to spread culture from one end of society to the other. They carry the best knowledge and the best ideas of their times. It is the duty of these men to humanize knowledge, and therefore, it becomes the best knowledge and thought of the ages, and becomes a true source of sweetness and light. The great men of culture broaden the basis of life and intelligence and work powerfully to expand sweetness and light to make reason and the will of God to prevail.

Consequently, a man of culture is like a honey bee. The job of honey bee is to suck the juice from all flowers (sweet or sour) and to make honey. Honey is sweet and liked by all in all forms. Honey has wax that is not useless because the candles are made of it light. Hence, in the end of sweetness is light. In this way, a man of culture seeks knowledge from all departments and shares it to all. He is not narrow-minded because such knowledge brings perfection. So his pursuit of perfection is sweetness and light.